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Index Entheogen

An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development. [1]

359 relations: Absolution Gap, Acacia pycnantha, Acorus calamus, Aegean civilizations, Aegean Sea, Africa, Agriculture, Alastair Reynolds, Albert Hofmann, Alcohol, Alcohol and sex, Alcohol intoxication, Alcoholic drink, Aldous Huxley, Alternative medicine, Amanita muscaria, Ambrosia, American Indian Religious Freedom Act, Anadenanthera colubrina, Anadenanthera peregrina, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Rome, Anuttarayoga Tantra, Arabic, Aramaic language, Assassins, Atef, Atropa belladonna, Attorney-General's Department (Australia), Ayahuasca, Aztecs, Bahá'í Faith, Banisteriopsis caapi, Beat (acoustics), Bee (mythology), Beer, Before Present, Black magic, Blinded experiment, Botanical identity of soma–haoma, Brainwashing, Bread and circuses, Bruce Sterling, Buddhism, Bwiti, Cakrasaṃvara Tantra, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), ..., Carl A. P. Ruck, Casey William Hardison, Celtic polytheism, Chant, Chögyam Trungpa, Chemical synthesis, China, Christian, Christian denomination, Christian Rätsch, Christianity, Church of Christ, Scientist, Church of the Universe, City of Boerne v. Flores, Classical Greece, Cognate, Criminal law of Australia, Curandero, Curse, Cymbopogon citratus, Dacians, Daniel Waterman, Datura, Datura stramonium, Datura wrightii, Delphi, Demeter, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Dionysian Mysteries, Dionysus, Dipropyltryptamine, Divination, Divinity, Drum circle, Duboisia myoporoides, Dune (franchise), Echinopsis pachanoi, Echinopsis peruviana, Ego death, Eleusinian Mysteries, Empathogen–entactogen, Employment Division v. Smith, Entheogenic (band), Entheogenic use of cannabis, Enthusiasm, Ephedra, Ephedrine, Epistemology, Ergine, Ethanol, Ethnobotany, Ethnomycology, Ethylene, Etymology, Eucharist, Europe, Faith healing, Faster-than-light, Fasting, Fertility, Fertility rite, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Five Precepts, Five Precepts (Taoism), Forest, Frank Herbert, Free Exercise Clause, Gaia, Geriatrics, Gilgamesh, Giorgio Samorini, God, God (male deity), Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, Government interest, Government of Australia, Greeks, Hallucinogen, Hans Arne Jensen, Harvard Psilocybin Project, Harvard University, Hebrew language, Hedjet, Herodotus, Heruka, Hinduism, History of ancient Israel and Judah, History of lysergic acid diethylamide, History of the hippie movement, Holy anointing oil, Holy Fire (novel), Humphry Osmond, Huston Smith, Hymn, Hyperborea, Ibogaine, India, Indigenous Australians, Insanity, Institutional review board, Ipomoea tricolor, Islam, Island (Huxley novel), Isolation tank, Ivory Coast, Jack Kornfield, Jainism, James A. Duke, Jewish holidays, Jewish Renewal, Jews, John M. Allegro, Johns Hopkins University, Jonathan Ott, Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Judaism, Kava, Kiddush, Kiowa, Kykeon, List of Australian floral emblems, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Maenad, Mahasiddha, Mahayana, Maleficium (sorcery), Manna, Marsh Chapel Experiment, Mass (liturgy), Maya peoples, Māori people, Mead, Meditation, Melanesians, Melange (fictional drug), Men's Journal, Mescaline, Mexico, Michael Zohary, Micronesia, Moksha, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Muscimol, Mushroom, Mushroom hunting, Mycenaean Greece, Mythology, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Narcissus (mythology), Native American Church, Native American religion, Native Americans in the United States, Natural product, Neo-American Church, Neologism, New Zealand, Nicotiana rustica, Ninkasi, North America, Nyanga people, Nymphaea caerulea, Nysa (mythology), Objectivity (science), Oceania, Odyssey, Old Testament, Ontology, Organic chemistry, Osiris, Paganism, Panaeolus, Papaver somniferum, Papua New Guinea, Passover, Pazyryk burials, Pāli Canon, Peer review, Peganum harmala, Persephone, Peruvian Amazonia, Peter Stafford, Peyote, Peyote song, Philip K. Dick, Philology, Physical dependence, PiHKAL, Plaincourault Chapel, Plato, Poland, Polynesian culture, Popular culture, Prayer, Prohibition of drugs, Project MKUltra, Protestantism, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic art, Psychedelic drug, Psychedelic music, Psychedelic therapy, Psychoactive drug, Psychochemical warfare, Psychological torture, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Psychotria viridis, Pulque, Purim, Qumran, Quran, R. Gordon Wasson, Rabbinic Judaism, Ram Dass, Rastafari, Rave, Recreational drug use, Religion, Religion and drugs, Religious ecstasy, Religious experience, Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Religious use of incense, Richard Evans Schultes, Rigveda, Rite of passage, Ritual, Robert Graves, Ronin Publishing, Rus' people, Sadhu, Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A, Santo Daime, Sati (Buddhism), Scythians, Sensory deprivation, Septuagint, Serpent (symbolism), Seventh-day Adventist Church, Shabbat, Shaivism, Shamanism, Sherbert v. Verner, Siberia, Silene undulata, Soma (drink), South America, Spirit possession, Spiritual development, Spiritual formation, Spirituality, State Religious Freedom Restoration Acts, Stephen King, Sucellus, Sufism, Sula Benet, Sumer, Supreme Court of the United States, Symposium (Plato), Tabernanthe iboga, Talmud, Tanakh, Tantalus, Taoism, Temple of the True Inner Light, Ten Precepts (Taoism), Terence McKenna, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Dark Tower (series), The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, The Doors of Perception, The Living Torah and Nach, The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, The Transmigration of Timothy Archer, Theravada, TiHKAL, Timothy Leary, Titan (mythology), Tobacco, Toxicity, Traditional healers of South Africa, Trance, Transcendence (religion), Transubstantiation, Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, Turbina corymbosa, Tutelary deity, União do Vegetal, United Pentecostal Church International, University of Toronto, Urarina people, Vajrayana, Vedas, Venom, Virola, Walter Pahnke, White magic, Wine, Winemaking, Xhosa people, Yidam, Yoga, Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, 2C-B, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine. Expand index (309 more) »

Absolution Gap

Absolution Gap is a 2003 science fiction novel written by Welsh author Alastair Reynolds.

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Acacia pycnantha

Acacia pycnantha, commonly known as the golden wattle, is a tree of the family Fabaceae native to southeastern Australia.

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Acorus calamus

Acorus calamus (also called sweet flag or calamus, among many common names) is a species of flowering plant, a tall wetland monocot of the Acoraceae family, in the genus Acorus.

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Aegean civilizations

Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Alastair Reynolds

Alastair Preston Reynolds (born 13 March 1966) is a British science fiction author.

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Albert Hofmann

Albert Hofmann (11 January 1906 – 29 April 2008) was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcohol and sex

Alcohol and sex deals with the effects of the consumption of alcohol on sexual behavior.

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Alcohol intoxication

Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Aldous Huxley

Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.

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In the ancient Greek myths, ambrosia (ἀμβροσία, "immortality") is sometimes the food or drink of the Greek gods, often depicted as conferring longevity or immortality upon whoever consumed it.

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American Indian Religious Freedom Act

The American Indian Religious Freedom Act, Public Law No.

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Anadenanthera colubrina

Anadenanthera colubrina (also known as vilca, huilco, huilca, wilco, willka, curupay, curupau, cebil, or angico) is a South American tree closely related to Yopo, or Anadenanthera peregrina.

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Anadenanthera peregrina

Anadenanthera peregrina, also known as yopo, jopo, cohoba, parica or calcium tree, is a perennial tree of the genus Anadenanthera native to the Caribbean and South America.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anuttarayoga Tantra

Anuttarayoga Tantra (Sanskrit, Tibetan: bla na med pa'i rgyud), often translated as Unexcelled Yoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra, is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism in the categorization of esoteric tantric Indian Buddhist texts that constitute part of the Kangyur, or the 'translated words of the Buddha' in the Tibetan Buddhist canon.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.

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Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the Egyptian deity Osiris.

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Atropa belladonna

Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.

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Attorney-General's Department (Australia)

The Attorney-General's Department is a department of the federal government of Australia responsible for law and justice.

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Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Banisteriopsis caapi

Banisteriopsis caapi, also known as ayahuasca, caapi or yagé, is a South American liana of the family Malpighiaceae.

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Beat (acoustics)

In acoustics, a beat is an interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as a periodic variation in volume whose rate is the difference of the two frequencies.

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Bee (mythology)

In mythology, the bee, found in Indian, Ancient Near East and Aegean cultures, was believed to be the sacred insect that bridged the natural world to the underworld.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Black magic

Black magic has traditionally referred to the use of supernatural powers or magic for evil and selfish purposes.

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Blinded experiment

A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.

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Botanical identity of soma–haoma

There has been much speculation as to the original Rigvedic Soma plant (and of the Proto-Indo-Iranian *Sauma which besides Soma is reflected in the Iranian Haoma).

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Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.

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Bread and circuses

"Bread and circuses" (or bread and games; from panem et circenses) is a figure of speech, specifically referring to a superficial means of appeasement.

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Bruce Sterling

Michael Bruce Sterling (born April 14, 1954) is an American science fiction author known for his novels and work on the Mirrorshades anthology.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bwiti is a spiritual discipline of the forest-dwelling Babongo and Mitsogo peoples of Gabon (where it is recognized as one of three official religions) and by the Fang people of Gabon and Cameroon.

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Cakrasaṃvara Tantra

The Cakrasaṃvara Tantra (चक्रसंवर तन्त्र) or Khorlo Déchok is considered to be of the mother class of the Anuttarayoga Tantra in Vajrayana Buddhism.

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Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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Carl A. P. Ruck

Carl A. P. Ruck (born December 8, 1935, Bridgeport, Connecticut), is a professor in the Classical Studies department at Boston University.

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Casey William Hardison

Casey William Hardison (born 1971) is an American chemist convicted in the United Kingdom in 2005 of six offences involving psychedelic drugs: three of production, two of possession, and one of exportation.

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Celtic polytheism

Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.

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A chant (from French chanter, from Latin cantare, "to sing") is the iterative speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones.

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Chögyam Trungpa

Chögyam Trungpa (Wylie: Chos rgyam Drung pa; March 5, 1939 – April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master and holder of both the Kagyu and Nyingma lineages, the eleventh Trungpa tülku, a tertön, supreme abbot of the Surmang monasteries, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and originator of a radical re-presentation of Shambhala vision.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian Rätsch

Christian Rätsch (born 1957) is a German anthropologist and writer on topics like ethnopharmacology, psychoactive plants and animals.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church of Christ, Scientist

The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston, Massachusetts, by Mary Baker Eddy, author of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, and founder of Christian Science.

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Church of the Universe

The Assembly of the Church of the Universe, an entheogen religion, was established by Walter Tucker in 1969 in the Canadian province of Ontario.

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City of Boerne v. Flores

City of Boerne v. Flores,, was a US Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's enforcement power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Criminal law of Australia

The criminal law of Australia is the body of law made, recognised and applied in Australia that relates to crime.

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A curandero (f. curandera) or curandeiro (f. curandeira) is a traditional Native healer, shaman or Witch doctor found in Latin America, the United States and Southern Europe.

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A curse (also called an imprecation, malediction, execration, malison, anathema, or commination) is any expressed wish that some form of adversity or misfortune will befall or attach to some other entity: one or more persons, a place, or an object.

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Cymbopogon citratus

Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemon grass or oil grass, is a tropical plant from South Asia and introduced to Southeast Asia.

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The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.

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Daniel Waterman

Daniel Waterman (born 1962) is a British philosopher, artist, writer, freelance researcher, locksmith and Ayahuasca provider, living in the Netherlands.

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Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae.

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Datura stramonium

Datura stramonium, known by the English names jimsonweed or devil's snare, is a plant in the nightshade family.

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Datura wrightii

Datura wrighti, or sacred datura, is the name of a poisonous perennial plant and ornamental flower of southwestern North America.

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Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.

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In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.

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Dermatophyllum secundiflorum

Dermatophyllum secundiflorum is a species of flowering shrub or small tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the southwestern United States (Texas, New Mexico) and Mexico (Chihuahua and Coahuila south to Hidalgo, Puebla and Querétaro).

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Dionysian Mysteries

The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which sometimes used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques (like dance and music) to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return to a natural state.

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Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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N,N-Dipropyltryptamine (DPT, also known as "The Light") is a psychedelic drug belonging to the tryptamine family, first reported in 1973.

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Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.

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In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.

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Drum circle

A drum circle is any group of people playing (usually) hand-drums and percussion in a circle.

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Duboisia myoporoides

Duboisia myoporoides, or Corkwood, is a shrub or tree native to high-rainfall areas on the margins of rainforest in eastern Australia.

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Dune (franchise)

Dune is a science fiction media franchise that originated with the 1965 novel Dune by Frank Herbert.

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Echinopsis pachanoi

Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) — known as San Pedro cactus — is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains at in altitude.

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Echinopsis peruviana

Echinopsis peruviana (syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), the Peruvian torch cactus, is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about above sea level.

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Ego death

Ego death is a "complete loss of subjective self-identity".

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Eleusinian Mysteries

The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece.

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Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

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Employment Division v. Smith

Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith,, is a United States Supreme Court case that held that the state could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for violating a state prohibition on the use of peyote, even though the use of the drug was part of a religious ritual.

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Entheogenic (band)

Entheogenic is a musical project consisting of Piers Oak-Rhind and Helmut Glavar that crosses musical style boundaries.

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Entheogenic use of cannabis

Cannabis has been used in an entheogenic context—a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context—in India and Nepal since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE.

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Enthusiasm is intense enjoyment, interest, or approval.

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Ephedra is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica.

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Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) and d-lysergamide, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.

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Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology.

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Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Faith healing

Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice.

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Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communication and travel are the conjectural propagation of information or matter faster than the speed of light.

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Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.

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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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Fertility rite

Fertility rites are religious rituals that reenact, either actually or symbolically, sexual acts and/or reproductive processes: 'sexual intoxication is a typical component of the...rites of the various functional gods who control reproduction, whether of man, beast, cattle, or grains of seed'.

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution

The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.

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Five Precepts

The five precepts (pañcasīlāni; pañcaśīlāni)) constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken by upāsaka and upāsikā (lay followers) of Buddhism. The precepts in all the traditions are essentially identical and are commitments to abstain from harming living beings, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxication. Undertaking the five precepts is part of both lay Buddhist initiation and regular lay Buddhist devotional practices. They are not formulated as imperatives, but as training rules that lay people undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice. Additionally, in the Theravāda school of Buddhism, the bhikkhuni lineage died out, and women renunciates practicing Theravadin Buddhism have developed unofficial options for their own practice, dedicating their life to religion, vowing celibacy, living an ascetic life and holding eight or ten precepts.

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Five Precepts (Taoism)

In Daoism, The Five Precepts constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken mainly by lay practitioners.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Frank Herbert

Franklin Patrick Herbert, Jr. (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was an American science fiction writer best known for the novel Dune and its five sequels.

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Free Exercise Clause

The Free Exercise Clause accompanies the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.

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Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.

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Giorgio Samorini

Giorgio Samorini (born 1957 in Bologna, Italy) is a psychedelics researcher.

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In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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God (male deity)

A god is a male deity, in contrast with a goddess, a female deity.

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Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal

Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that, under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, the government had failed to show a compelling interest in prosecuting religious adherents for drinking a sacramental tea containing a Schedule I controlled substance.

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Government interest

Government interest is a concept in law that allows the government to regulate a given matter.

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Government of Australia

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hans Arne Jensen

Hans Arne Jensen is a Danish botanist, agronomist and writer.

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Harvard Psilocybin Project

The Harvard Psilocybin Project was a series of experiments in psychology conducted by Dr.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hedjet (ḥḏt) is the formal name for the white crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Heruka (Sanskrit), is the name of a category of wrathful deities, enlightened beings in Vajrayana Buddhism that adopt a fierce countenance to benefit sentient beings.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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History of ancient Israel and Judah

The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.

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History of lysergic acid diethylamide

The psychedelic drug (or entheogen) lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz (now Novartis) laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.

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History of the hippie movement

The hippie subculture began its development as a youth movement in the United States during the early 1960s and then developed around the world.

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Holy anointing oil

The holy anointing oil (Hebrew: שמן המשחה shemen ha-mishchah, "oil of anointing") formed an integral part of the ordination of the priesthood and the High Priest as well as in the consecration of the articles of the Tabernacle (Exodus 30:26) and subsequent temples in Jerusalem.

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Holy Fire (novel)

Holy Fire is a 1996 science fiction novel by American writer Bruce Sterling.

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Humphry Osmond

Humphry Fortescue Osmond (1 July 1917 – 6 February 2004) was an English psychiatrist who expatriated to Canada, then moved to work in the United States.

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Huston Smith

Huston Cummings Smith (May 31, 1919 – December 30, 2016) was a religious studies scholar in the United States.

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A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,; Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind".

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Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.

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Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.

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Institutional review board

An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC), ethical review board (ERB), or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical.

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Ipomoea tricolor

Ipomoea tricolor, the Mexican morning glory or just morning glory, is a species of flowering plant in the family Convolvulaceae, native to the New World tropics, and widely cultivated and naturalised elsewhere.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Island (Huxley novel)

Island is the final book by English writer Aldous Huxley, published in 1962.

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Isolation tank

An isolation tank, usually called a sensory deprivation tank (also known as float tank, flotation tank, or sensory attenuation tank) is a lightless, soundproof tank filled with salt water at skin temperature, in which individuals float.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Jack Kornfield

Jack Kornfield is a bestselling American author and teacher in the vipassana movement in American Theravada Buddhism.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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James A. Duke

James A. Duke (4 April 1929 – 10 December 2017) was an American botanist.

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Jewish holidays

Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.

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Jewish Renewal

Jewish Renewal is a recent movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with Kabbalistic, Hasidic, and musical practices.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John M. Allegro

John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 – 17 February 1988) was an English archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Jonathan Ott

Jonathan Ott (born 1949 in Hartford, Connecticut) is an ethnobotanist, writer, translator, publisher, natural products chemist and botanical researcher in the area of entheogens and their cultural and historical uses, and helped coin the term "entheogen".

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Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall

Baron Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall (9 June 1774 in Graz – 23 November 1856 in Vienna) was an Austrian orientalist and historian.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.

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Kiddush (קידוש), literally, "sanctification," is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat and Jewish holidays.

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Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains.

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Kykeon (Gr. κυκεών, from κυκάω, "to stir, to mix") was an Ancient Greek drink of various descriptions.

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List of Australian floral emblems

This is a list of Australian floral emblems.

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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.

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In Greek mythology, maenads (μαινάδες) were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue.

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Mahasiddha (Sanskrit: mahāsiddha "great adept) is a term for someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection".

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Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

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Maleficium (sorcery)

Maleficium (plural: maleficia) as a Latin term, "An act of witchcraft performed with the intention of causing damage or injury; the resultant harm." It comes from the, "Early 17th century; earliest use found in George Abbot (1562–1633), archbishop of Canterbury.

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Manna (מָן mān,; المَنّ., گزانگبین), sometimes or archaically spelled mana, is an edible substance which God provided for the Israelites during their travels in the desert during the forty-year period following the Exodus and prior to the conquest of Canaan.

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Marsh Chapel Experiment

The Marsh Chapel Experiment, also called the "Good Friday Experiment", was a 1962 experiment conducted on Good Friday at Boston University's Marsh Chapel.

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Mass (liturgy)

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.

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Maya peoples

The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.

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Melange (fictional drug)

Melange, often referred to as simply "the spice", is the name of the fictional drug central to the ''Dune'' series of science fiction novels by Frank Herbert, and derivative works.

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Men's Journal

Men's Journal is a monthly men's lifestyle magazine focused on outdoor recreation and comprising editorials on the outdoors, environmental issues, health and fitness, style and fashion, and gear.

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Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Michael Zohary

Michael Zohary (מיכאל זהרי) (born 9 April 1898 in Bóbrka, Galicia (Austria-Hungary); died 16 April 1983 in Israel) was a pioneering Israeli botanist.

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Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.

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Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies

The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a membership-based 501(c)(3) organization working to raise awareness and understanding of psychedelic substances.

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Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.

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A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.

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Mushroom hunting

Mushroom hunting, Houby hunting, mushrooming, mushroom picking, mushroom foraging, and similar terms describe the activity of gathering mushrooms in the wild, typically for food.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.

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Narcissus (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Narcissus (Νάρκισσος, Nárkissos) was a hunter from Thespiae in Boeotia who was known for his beauty.

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Native American Church

The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.

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Native American religion

Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Natural product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.

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Neo-American Church

The Original Kleptonian Neo-American Church (OKNeoAC), mostly shorted Neo-American Church, is a religious organization based on the use of psychedelic drugs (the "True Host") as a sacrament.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicotiana rustica

Nicotiana rustica, Aztec tobacco or wild tobacco, called ucuch in southern Mexico (specifically Campeche and Yucatán) due to its Mayan roots, mapacho in South America, and thuoc lao (thuốc lào) in Vietnam, is a rainforest plant in the Solanaceae family.

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Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Nyanga people

The Nyanga (also Banianga, Banyanga, Kinyanga, Nianga or Nyangas) are a Bantu people in the African Great Lakes region.

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Nymphaea caerulea

Nymphaea caerulea, known primarily as blue lotus (or blue Egyptian lotus), but also blue water lily (or blue Egyptian water lily), and sacred blue lily, is a water lily in the genus Nymphaea.

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Nysa (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the mountainous district of Nysa (Νῦσα), variously associated with Ethiopia, Libya, Tribalia, India or Arabia by Greek mythographers, was the traditional place where the rain nymphs, the Hyades, raised the infant god Dionysus, the "Zeus of Nysa".

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Objectivity (science)

Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.

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Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Panaeolus is a genus of small, black-spored, saprotrophic agarics.

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Papaver somniferum

Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.

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Pazyryk burials

The Pazyryk (Пазырык) burials are a number of Scythian Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

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Pāli Canon

The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Peganum harmala

Peganum harmala, commonly called esfand, wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, harmel, or aspand (among other similar pronunciations and spellings), is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae.

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In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.

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Peruvian Amazonia

The Peruvian Amazonia (Amazonía del Perú) is the area of the Amazon rainforest included within the country of Peru, from east of the Andes to the borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia.

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Peter Stafford

Peter Stafford (April 11, 1939 – July 20, 2007) was an American writer and author of the Psychedelics Encyclopedia.

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Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.

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Peyote song

Peyote songs are a form of Native American music, now most often performed as part of the Native American Church.

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Philip K. Dick

Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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Physical dependence

Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.

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PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story is a book by Dr.

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Plaincourault Chapel

Plaincourault Chapel is a 12th-century chapel of the Knights Hospitaller in Mérigny, Indre, France.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polynesian culture

Polynesian culture is the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia who share common traits in language, customs and society.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.

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Prohibition of drugs

The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.

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Project MKUltra

Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency—and which were, at times, illegal.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

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Psilocybe cubensis

Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principal active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin.

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Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.

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Psilocybin mushroom

A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.

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Psychedelic art

Psychedelic art is any art or visual displays inspired by psychedelic experiences and hallucinations known to follow the ingestion of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin.

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Psychedelic drug

Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.

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Psychedelic music

Psychedelic music (sometimes psychedelia) covers a wide range of popular music styles and genres influenced by 1960s psychedelia, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations, synesthesia and altered states of consciousness.

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Psychedelic therapy

Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs, particularly serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, MDMA, mescaline, and 2C-B, primarily to assist psychotherapy.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Psychochemical warfare

Psychochemical warfare involves the use of psychopharmacological agents (mind-altering drugs or chemicals) with the intention of incapacitating an adversary through the temporary induction of hallucinations or delirium.

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Psychological torture

Psychological torture is a type of torture that relies primarily on psychological effects, and only secondarily on any physical harm inflicted.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Psychotria viridis

Psychotria viridis is a perennial shrub of the Rubiaceae family.

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Pulque (occasionally referred to as agave wine) is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the maguey (agave) plant.

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Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.

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Qumran (קומראן; خربة قمران) is an archaeological site in the West Bank managed by Israel's Qumran National Park.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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R. Gordon Wasson

Robert Gordon Wasson (September 22, 1898 – December 23, 1986) was an American author, ethnomycologist, and Vice President for Public Relations at J.P. Morgan & Co. In the course of CIA-funded research, Wasson made contributions to the fields of ethnobotany, botany, and anthropology.

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Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.

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Ram Dass

Ram Dass (born Richard Alpert; April 6, 1931) is an American spiritual teacher, former academic and clinical psychologist, and the author of the seminal 1971 book Be Here Now. He is known for his personal and professional associations with Timothy Leary at Harvard University in the early 1960s, for his travels to India and his relationship with the Hindu guru Neem Karoli Baba, and for founding the charitable organizations Seva Foundation and Hanuman Foundation.

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Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.

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A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religion and drugs

Many religions have expressed positions on what is acceptable to consume as a means of intoxication for spiritual, pleasure, or medicinal purposes.

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Religious ecstasy

Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.

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Religious experience

A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.

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Religious Freedom Restoration Act

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub.

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Religious use of incense

Religious use of incense has its origins in antiquity.

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Richard Evans Schultes

Richard Evans Schultes (SHULL-tees;Jonathan Kandell,, The New York Times, April 13, 2001, Accessed March 11, 2015. January 12, 1915 – April 10, 2001) was an American biologist.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Rite of passage

A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.

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A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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Robert Graves

Robert Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985), also known as Robert von Ranke Graves, was an English poet, historical novelist, critic, and classicist.

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Ronin Publishing

Ronin Publishing, Inc. is a small press in Berkeley, California, founded in 1983 and incorporated in 1985, which publishes books as tools for personal development, visionary alternatives, and expanded consciousness.

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Rus' people

The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.

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A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.

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Salvia divinorum

Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.

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Salvinorin A

Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.

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Santo Daime

Santo Daime is a syncretic religion founded in the 1930s in the Brazilian Amazonian state of Acre by Raimundo Irineu Serra, known as Mestre Irineu.

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Sati (Buddhism)

Sati (in Pali; Sanskrit: smṛti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist practice.

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or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Sensory deprivation

Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.

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The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Serpent (symbolism)

The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.

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Seventh-day Adventist Church

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.

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Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Sherbert v. Verner

Sherbert v. Verner,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment required the government to demonstrate both a compelling interest and that the law in question was narrowly tailored before it denied unemployment compensation to someone who was fired because her job requirements substantially conflicted with her religion.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Silene undulata

Silene undulata (iindlela zimhlophe—"white ways/paths", also known as Silene capensis, and African dream root) is a plant native to the Eastern Cape of South Africa.

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Soma (drink)

Soma (सोम) or haoma (Avestan) is a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indians.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spirit possession

Spirit possession is a term for the belief that animas, aliens, demons, extraterrestrials, gods, or spirits can take control of a human body.

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Spiritual development

Spiritual development is the development of the personality towards a religious or spiritual desired better personality.

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Spiritual formation

Spiritual formation may refer either to the process and practices by which a person may progress in one's spiritual or religious life or to a movement in Protestant Christianity that emphasizes these processes and practices.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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State Religious Freedom Restoration Acts

State Religious Freedom Restoration Acts are state laws based on the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), a federal law that was passed almost unanimously by the U.S. Congress in 1993 and signed into law by President Bill Clinton.

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Stephen King

Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy.

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In Gallo-Roman religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was a deity depicted as carrying a large mallet (also described as a hammer) and also an olla and/or barrel.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sula Benet

Sara Benetowa, later known as Sula Benet (1903–1982), was a Polish anthropologist of the 20th century who studied Polish and Judaic customs and traditions.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Symposium (Plato)

The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385–370 BC.

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Tabernanthe iboga

Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Tantalus (Τάνταλος Tántalos) was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus.

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Temple of the True Inner Light

The Temple of the True Inner Light is a temple in Manhattan which believes Entheogens such as Dipropyltryptamine, Cannabis, LSD-25, Mescaline, Psilocybin and DMT to be God, and that religions such as Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, etc., originally believed that Entheogens are the true God.

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Ten Precepts (Taoism)

The Ten Precepts of Taoism were outlined in a short text that appears in Dunhuang manuscripts (DH31, 32), the Scripture of the Ten Precepts (Shíjiè jīng 十戒經).

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Terence McKenna

Terence Kemp McKenna (November 16, 1946 – April 3, 2000) was an American ethnobotanist, mystic, psychonaut, lecturer, author, and an advocate for the responsible use of naturally occurring psychedelic plants.

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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The Dark Tower (series)

The Dark Tower is a series of eight books written by American author Stephen King that incorporates themes from multiple genres, including dark fantasy, science fantasy, horror, and Western.

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The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger

The Gunslinger is a fantasy novel by American author Stephen King, the first volume in the Dark Tower series.

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The Doors of Perception

The Doors of Perception is a philosophical essay, released as a book, by Aldous Huxley.

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The Living Torah and Nach

The Living Torah and The Living Nach are popular, clear and modern English translations of the Tanakh based on traditional Jewish sources, along with extensive notes, maps, illustrations, diagrams, charts, bibliography, and index.

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The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross

The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity Within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East is a 1970 book about the linguistics of early Christianity and fertility cults in the Ancient Near East.

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The Transmigration of Timothy Archer

The Transmigration of Timothy Archer is a 1982 novel by American writer Philip K. Dick.

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Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.

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TIHKAL: The Continuation is a 1997 book written by Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about a family of psychoactive drugs known as tryptamines.

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Timothy Leary

Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions.

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Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Traditional healers of South Africa

Traditional healers of South Africa are practitioners of traditional African medicine in Southern Africa.

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Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.

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Transcendence (religion)

In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.

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Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

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Tricycle: The Buddhist Review

Tricycle: The Buddhist Review is an independent, nonsectarian Buddhist quarterly that publishes Buddhist teachings, practices, and critique.

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Turbina corymbosa

Turbina corymbosa, syn. Rivea corymbosa, is a species of morning glory, native throughout Latin America from Mexico as far south as Peru and widely naturalised elsewhere.

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Tutelary deity

A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.

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União do Vegetal

The Beneficent Spiritist Center União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal; or UDV) is a religious society founded on July 22, 1961 by José Gabriel da Costa, known as Mestre Gabriel.

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United Pentecostal Church International

The United Pentecostal Church International (or UPCI) is an Apostolic Pentecostal Christian denomination, headquartered in Weldon Spring, Missouri.

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University of Toronto

The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.

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Urarina people

The Urarina are an indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin (Loreto) who inhabit the valleys of the Chambira, Urituyacu, and Corrientes Rivers.

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Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.

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Virola is a genus of medium-sized trees native to the South American rainforest and closely related to other Myristicaceae, such as nutmeg.

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Walter Pahnke

Walter Norman Pahnke (Jan 18, 1931 - July 10, 1971) was a minister, physician, and psychiatrist most famous for the "Good Friday Experiment", also referred to as the Marsh Chapel Experiment or the "Miracle of Marsh Chapel".

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White magic

White magic has traditionally referred to the use of supernatural powers or magic for selfless purposes.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.

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Xhosa people

The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.

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Yidam is a type of deity associated with tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism said to be manifestations of Buddhahood or enlightened mind.

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Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

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Zalman Schachter-Shalomi

Meshullam Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, commonly called "Reb Zalman", (28 August 1924 – 3 July 2014) was one of the founders of the Jewish Renewal movement and an innovator in ecumenical dialogue.

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2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.

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3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine ("MDEA"; also called "MDE" and colloquially, "Eve") is an empathogenic psychoactive drug.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entheogen

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