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Index Iodine

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. [1]

339 relations: Acetic acid, Acetone, Actinide, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkali metal, Alkaloid, Alkene, Alkyne, Aluminium iodide, Amine, Ammonia, Anadarko Basin, Anaphylaxis, Ancient Greek, André-Marie Ampère, Angiography, Annales de chimie et de physique, Antimony pentafluoride, Antiviral drug, Artery, Assay, Astatine, Atomic electron transition, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Azeotrope, Azide, Band gap, Bernard Courtois, Beta decay, Bifluoride, Bismuth, Bond-dissociation energy, Boron, Brachytherapy, Brain tumor, Brine, Brittany, Bromine, Bromine pentafluoride, Butyl group, Cadmium, Caesium, Calcium, Calcium iodate, Caliche, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, ..., Carbon tetrachloride, Carbon tetraiodide, Carbon–carbon bond, Carbonylation, Catalysis, Cativa process, CBC News, Cell (biology), Cell death, Charge-transfer complex, Charles Bernard Desormes, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical Reviews, Chemist, Chile, Chlorate, Chlorine, Chlorine pentafluoride, Chlorine trifluoride, Chloryl fluoride, Choroid plexus, Cloud seeding, Cosmic ray spallation, Cosmogenic nuclide, Counterfeit, Crystal bar process, CT scan, Cyanogen iodide, Cysteine, Cytotoxicity, Dalton Transactions, Decarboxylation, Decay product, Deiodinase, Dermatoxin, Diamagnetism, Diamine, Diatomic molecule, Diketone, Diol, Disulfide, Egg as food, Electrolysis, Electron affinity, Electron capture, Electron density, Electronegativity, Endothermic process, Erythrosine, Ethyl group, Ethylene, Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide, Evaporation, Extinct radionuclide, Fatty acid, Finkelstein reaction, Fluorine, Fluorosulfuric acid, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), France, Gamma ray, Gastric mucosa, Goitre, Gold, Greek language, Grignard reaction, Gunpowder, Haloform reaction, Halogen, Halogenation, Hexane, Hofmann elimination, HOMO/LUMO, Humphry Davy, Hydrazine, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen iodide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydroiodic acid, Hydroxy ketone, Hygroscopy, Hypersensitivity, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoiodous acid, Hypothyroidism, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Institut de France, Intellectual disability, Interhalogen, Iobenguane, Iodane, Iodate, Iodic acid, Iodide, Iodine clock reaction, Iodine deficiency, Iodine heptafluoride, Iodine monobromide, Iodine monochloride, Iodine monofluoride, Iodine oxide, Iodine pentafluoride, Iodine pentoxide, Iodine trichloride, Iodine trifluoride, Iodine-123, Iodine-125, Iodine-129, Iodine-131, Iodised salt, Iodoacetamide, Iodoacetic acid, Iodobenzene dichloride, Iodoform, Iodometry, Iodophor, Iodous acid, Ionization energy, Iron(II) iodide, Isotopes of iodine, Isotopes of tellurium, Isotopes of xenon, Japan, Jod-Basedow phenomenon, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Justus von Liebig, Kelp, Kombu, Lactation, Lanthanide, Lanthanum, Lattice energy, Law of mass action, Lead, Lead dioxide, Leaving group, Lewis acids and bases, Liebigs Annalen, List of purification methods in chemistry, Lugol's iodine, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Methanol, Methionine, Methyl group, Michael E. Jung, Microgram, Minami Kantō gas field, Mineral (nutrient), Molybdenum, Molybdenum dioxide, Monoisotopic element, Monsanto process, Napoleonic Wars, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nicolas Clément, Niobium, Nitrary, Nitric acid, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Nitrogen triiodide, Nitrosyl chloride, Noble gas, Normandy, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nucleophilic substitution, Nucleotide, Nutrition, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Oklahoma, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organobromine compound, Organochloride, Organoiodine compound, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Paramagnetism, Parts-per notation, Parvovirus, Pentagonal bipyramidal molecular geometry, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Periodate, Periodic acid, Periodic trends, Permanganate, Permissible exposure limit, Perseus Project, Phenol, Phosgene, Phosphorus triiodide, Photoelectric effect, Physicist, Platinum, Polymer, Potassium, Potassium iodide, Potassium nitrate, Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II), Povidone-iodine, Primordial nuclide, Prostate cancer, Protactinium, Pseudohalogen, Pyrex, Quaternary ammonium cation, Radiation therapy, Radioactive tracer, Radiocontrast agent, Radiogenic nuclide, Rare-earth element, Recommended exposure limit, Relative permittivity, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Rhenium, Rhenium pentachloride, Royal Society, Salicylic acid, Salivary gland, Saturated and unsaturated compounds, Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, Seafood, Seaweed, Selenium, Selenium deficiency, Semiconductor, Shellfish, Silver, Silver iodide, Silver nitrate, Silver(I) fluoride, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Sodium bisulfite, Sodium bromide, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium iodate, Sodium iodide, Sodium nitrate, Sodium-iodide symporter, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur tetrafluoride, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sulfuryl chloride, Tantalum, Tantalum(V) chloride, Tantalum(V) iodide, Thiocyanate, Thorium, Thymus, Thyroid, Thyroid cancer, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyroiditis, Thyronamine, Tincture of iodine, Tokyo, Toxicity, Trichlorofluoromethane, Triiodide, Triiodothyronine, Tungsten, Umami, Uveal melanoma, Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Victor Grignard, Viral envelope, Williamson ether synthesis, Wurtz reaction, Xenon, Xenon difluoride, Zirconium, 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid, 3-Iodothyronamine. Expand index (289 more) »

Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.

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Aluminium iodide

Aluminium iodide is any chemical compound containing only aluminium and iodine.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anadarko Basin

The Anadarko Basin is a geologic depositional and structural basin centered in the western part of the state of Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle, and extending into southwestern Kansas and southeastern Colorado.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Annales de chimie et de physique

Annales de chimie et de physique (French for Annals of Chemistry and of Physics) is a scientific journal that was founded in Paris, France, in 1789 under the title Annales de chimie.

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Antimony pentafluoride

Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5.

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Antiviral drug

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).

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Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.

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Atomic electron transition

Atomic electron transition is a change of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

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An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.

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Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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Band gap

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.

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Bernard Courtois

Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (8 February 1777 – 27 September 1838) was a French chemist credited with first isolating iodine and morphine.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Bifluoride is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula HF (also written −).

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Bond-dissociation energy

Bond-dissociation energy (BDE or D0) is one measure of the strength of a chemical bond.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

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Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.

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Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Bromine pentafluoride

Bromine pentafluoride, BrF5, is an interhalogen compound and a fluoride of bromine.

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Butyl group

In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula −C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane.

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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium iodate

Calcium iodates are inorganic compound composed of calcium and iodate anion.

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Caliche is a sedimentary rock, a hardened natural cement of calcium carbonate that binds other materials—such as gravel, sand, clay, and silt.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Carbon tetraiodide

Carbon tetraiodide is a tetrahalomethane with the molecular formula CI4.

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Carbon–carbon bond

A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.

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Carbonylation refers to reactions that introduce carbon monoxide into organic and inorganic substrates.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cativa process

The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol.

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CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell death

Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.

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Charge-transfer complex

A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.

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Charles Bernard Desormes

Charles Bernard Desormes (3 June 1777 – 30 August 1838) was a French physicist and chemist.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical Reviews

Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.

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A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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The chlorate anion has the formula.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chlorine pentafluoride

Chlorine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5.

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Chlorine trifluoride

Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3.

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Chloryl fluoride

Chloryl fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula ClO2F.

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Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.

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Cloud seeding

Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification that changes the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud.

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Cosmic ray spallation

Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.

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Cosmogenic nuclide

Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare nuclides (isotopes) created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).

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The counterfeit means to imitate something.

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Crystal bar process

The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cyanogen iodide

Cyanogen iodide or iodine cyanide (ICN) is a pseudohalogen composed of iodine and the cyanide group.

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Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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Dalton Transactions

Dalton Transactions is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles on all aspects of the chemistry of inorganic, bioinorganic, and organometallic compounds.

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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Decay product

In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.

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Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.

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A dermatoxin (from derma, the Greek word for skin) is a toxic chemical that damages skin, mucous membranes, or both, often leading to tissue necrosis.

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Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.

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A diamine is an organic compound with two amino groups.

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Diatomic molecule

Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.

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A diketone or dione is a molecule containing two ketone groups.

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A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Egg as food

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electron affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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Electron density

Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Endothermic process

The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.

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Erythrosine, also known as Red No.

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Ethyl group

In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).

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Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide

Ethylenediamine dihydriodide (EDDI) is a water-soluble salt derived from ethylenediamine and hydroiodic acid.

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Extinct radionuclide

An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Finkelstein reaction

The Finkelstein reaction (often referred to as a halex reaction or halogen exchange) named after the German chemist Hans Finkelstein, is an SN2 reaction (Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction) that involves the exchange of one halogen atom for another.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Fluorosulfuric acid

Fluorosulfuric acid (IUPAC name: sulfurofluoridic acid) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula HSO3F.

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Fractional crystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gastric mucosa

The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits.

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A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Haloform reaction

The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen) is produced by the exhaustive halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R–CO–CH3 group) in the presence of a base.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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Hofmann elimination

Hofmann elimination, also known as exhaustive methylation, is a process where a quaternary ammonium reacts to create a Tertiary amine and an alkene by treatment with excess methyl iodide followed by treatment with silver oxide, water, and heat.

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In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.

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Hydrogen iodide

Hydrogen iodide is a diatomic molecule and hydrogen halide.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydroiodic acid

Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).

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Hydroxy ketone

In organic chemistry a hydroxy ketone (often referred to simply as a ketol) is a functional group consisting of a ketone flanked by a hydroxyl group.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypoiodous acid

Hypoiodous acid is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula HOI.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Immediately dangerous to life or health

The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.

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Institut de France

The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.

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Iobenguane, also known as metaiodobenzylguanidine or mIBG, or MIBG (tradename Adreview) is a radiopharmaceutical, used in a scintigraphy method called MIBG scan.

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Iodanes are chemical compounds containing hypervalent iodine.

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An iodate is a conjugate base of iodic acid.

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Iodic acid

Iodic acid, HIO3, can be obtained as a white or off-white solid.

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An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Iodine clock reaction

The iodine clock reaction is a classical chemical clock demonstration experiment to display chemical kinetics in action; it was discovered by Hans Heinrich Landolt in 1886.

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Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.

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Iodine heptafluoride

Iodine heptafluoride, also known as iodine(VII) fluoride or iodine fluoride, is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula IF7.

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Iodine monobromide

Iodine monobromide is an interhalogen compound with the chemical symbol IBr.

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Iodine monochloride

Iodine monochloride is an interhalogen compound with the formula.

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Iodine monofluoride

Iodine monofluoride is an interhalogen compound of iodine and fluorine with formula IF.

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Iodine oxide

Iodine oxides are chemical compounds of oxygen and iodine.

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Iodine pentafluoride

Iodine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with chemical formula IF5.

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Iodine pentoxide

Iodine pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula I2O5.

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Iodine trichloride

Iodine trichloride is an interhalogen compound of iodine and chlorine.

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Iodine trifluoride

Iodine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula IF3.

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Iodine-123 (123I or I-123) is a radioactive isotope of iodine used in nuclear medicine imaging, including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT exams.

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Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors.

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Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.

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Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Iodised salt

Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.

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2-Iodoacetamide is an alkylating agent used for peptide mapping purposes.

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Iodoacetic acid

Iodoacetic acid is a derivative of acetic acid.

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Iodobenzene dichloride

Iodobenzene dichloride (PhICl2) is a complex of iodobenzene with chlorine.

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Iodoform is the organoiodine compound with the formula CHI3.

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Iodometry, also known as iodometric titration, is a method of volumetric chemical analysis, a redox titration where the appearance or disappearance of elementary iodine indicates the end point.

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An Iodophor is a preparation containing iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent, such as a surfactant or povidone (forming povidone-iodine).

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Iodous acid

Iodous acid is the chemical compound with the formula HIO2.

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Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.

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Iron(II) iodide

Iron(II) iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula FeI2.

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Isotopes of iodine

There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (53I) from 108I to 144I; all undergo radioactive decay except 127I, which is stable.

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Isotopes of tellurium

There are 38 known isotopes and 17 nuclear isomers of tellurium (52Te), with atomic masses that range from 105 to 142.

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Isotopes of xenon

Naturally occurring xenon (54Xe) is made of eight stable isotopes and one very long-lived isotope.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jod-Basedow phenomenon

The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement or as contrast medium.

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

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Journal of Organic Chemistry

The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Justus von Liebig

Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.

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Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.

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Kombu (from konbu) is edible kelp from mostly the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia.

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Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

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The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

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Lattice energy

The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.

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Law of mass action

In chemistry, the law of mass action is the proposition that the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the activities or concentrations of the reactants.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lead dioxide

Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.

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Leaving group

In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Liebigs Annalen

Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.

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List of purification methods in chemistry

Purification in a chemical context is the physical separation of a chemical substance of interest from foreign or contaminating substances.

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Lugol's iodine

Lugol's iodine, also known as aqueous iodine and strong iodine solution, is a solution of potassium iodide with iodine in water.

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Mössbauer spectroscopy

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Michael E. Jung

Michael E. Jung is a Professor of Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California at Los Angeles.

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In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.

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Minami Kantō gas field

The is a large gas field in Japan, east of Tokyo, in the Chiba prefecture.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Molybdenum dioxide

Molybdenum dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula MoO2.

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Monoisotopic element

A monoisotopic element is one of 26 chemical elements which have only a single stable isotope (nuclide).

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Monsanto process

The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Nicolas Clément

Nicolas Clément (12 January 1779 – 21 November 1841), also known as Mr.

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Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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A nitrary is a place of production of potassium nitrate or saltpetre used primarily for the manufacture of gunpowder.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen triiodide

Nitrogen triiodide is the inorganic compound with the formula NI3.

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Nitrosyl chloride

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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Nuclear fallout

Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.

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Nuclear fission product

Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear Physics (journal)

Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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Nucleophilic substitution

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.

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Organobromine compound

Organobromine compounds, also called organobromides, are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine.

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An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Organoiodine compound

Organoiodine compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon–iodine bonds.

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Orthorhombic crystal system

In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Parvovirus is the common name applied to all the viruses in the Parvoviridae taxonomic family.

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Pentagonal bipyramidal molecular geometry

In chemistry, a pentagonal bipyramid (or dipyramid) is a molecular geometry with one atom at the centre with seven ligands at the corners of a pentagonal dipyramid.

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Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.

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Periodate is an anion composed of iodine and oxygen.

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Periodic acid

Periodic acid ("per-iodic") is the highest oxoacid of iodine, in which the iodine exists in oxidation state VII.

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Periodic trends

Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.

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A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Perseus Project

The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.

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Phosphorus triiodide

Phosphorus triiodide (PI3) is an unstable red solid which reacts violently with water.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium iodide

Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.

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Potassium nitrate

Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.

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Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II)

Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) is an inorganic compound consisting of potassium cations and the tetraiodomercurate(II) anion.

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Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), also known as iodopovidone, is an antiseptic used for skin disinfection before and after surgery.

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Primordial nuclide

In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.

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The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.

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Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.

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Quaternary ammonium cation

Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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Radiocontrast agent

Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.

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Radiogenic nuclide

A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Relative permittivity

The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.

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Relativistic quantum chemistry

Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.

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Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.

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Rhenium pentachloride

Rhenium pentachloride is an inorganic compound of chlorine and rhenium.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).

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Salivary gland

The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.

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Saturated and unsaturated compounds

In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has single bonds.

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Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment

The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) was established by the 10th meeting of the Executive Committee of the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1969.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Selenium deficiency

Selenium deficiency is relatively rare in healthy well-nourished individuals.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Silver iodide

Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.

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Silver nitrate

Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.

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Silver(I) fluoride

Silver(I) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula AgF.

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Single-photon emission computed tomography

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.

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Sodium bisulfite

Sodium bisulfite (or sodium bisulphite) (sodium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3.

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Sodium bromide

Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium iodate

Sodium iodate (NaIO3) is the sodium salt of iodic acid.

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Sodium iodide

Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.

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Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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Sodium-iodide symporter

A sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), also known as a sodium/iodide cotransporter or solute carrier family 5, member 5 (SLC5A5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A5 gene.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfur tetrafluoride

Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4.

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Sulfur trioxide

Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Sulfuryl chloride

Sulfuryl chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula SO2Cl2.

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Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

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Tantalum(V) chloride

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5.

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Tantalum(V) iodide

Tantalum(V) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ta2I10.

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Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland.

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Thyronamine refers both to a molecule, and to derivatives of that molecule: a family of decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3).

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Tincture of iodine

Tincture of iodine, iodine tincture, or weak iodine solution is an antiseptic.

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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon.

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In chemistry, triiodide usually refers to the triiodide ion,.

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Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).

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Uveal melanoma

Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea).

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Victor Grignard

François Auguste Victor Grignard (6 May 1871 in Cherbourg – 13 December 1935 in Lyon) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist.

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Viral envelope

Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.

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Williamson ether synthesis

The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction, forming an ether from an organohalide and a deprotonated alcohol (alkoxide).

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Wurtz reaction

The Wurtz reaction, named after Charles-Adolphe Wurtz, is a coupling reaction in organic chemistry, organometallic chemistry and recently inorganic main group polymers, whereby two alkyl halides are reacted with sodium metal in dry ether solution to form a higher alkane: Other metals have also been used to effect the Wurtz coupling, among them silver, zinc, iron, activated copper, indium and a mixture of manganese and copper chloride.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Xenon difluoride

Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula, and one of the most stable xenon compounds.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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2-Iodoxybenzoic acid

IBX or 2-iodoxybenzoic acid is an organic compound used in organic synthesis as an oxidizing agent.

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3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous thyronamine.

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ATC code D08AG03, ATCvet code QD08AG03, Diiodine, Element 53, Hydrocarbons, iodinated, I (element), Iodene, Iodinated, Iodine allergy, Iodine antenatal infection, Iodine compounds, Iodine facts, Iodine sources, Iodine toxicity, Prolamine iodine, Source of iodine.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine

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