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Strategic bombing during World War II

Index Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II. [1]

562 relations: Adam Tooze, Adlertag, Aerial warfare, Aerodrome, Air attaché, Air chief marshal, Air marshal, Air raids on Japan, Air supremacy, Airborne leaflet propaganda, Airport, Airpower, Akashi, Hyōgo, Albert Kesselring, Albert Speer, Alexander Golovanov, Alexander Novikov, Alfred Salter, Allied submarines in the Pacific War, Allies of World War II, Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues, Altmark Incident, Amagasaki, American Humanist Association, Amerikabomber, Ancona, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Anghel Saligny Bridge, Anti-aircraft warfare, Antwerp, Aomori, Aomori, Arado Ar 234, Arado Flugzeugwerke, Area bombardment, Area bombing directive, Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Auguste Perret, AuthorHouse, Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa, Axis powers, Ōgaki, Ōita, Ōita, Ōmura, Nagasaki, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Baedeker Blitz, Ball State University, Basil Collier, Battle of Berlin (RAF campaign), ..., Battle of Britain, Battle of France, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Okinawa, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Beams, Battle of the Heligoland Bight (1939), Battle of the Ruhr, BBC History, Belfast Blitz, Berghahn Books, Berlin, Berlin Tempelhof Airport, Bernd Wegner, Big Week, Birmingham Blitz, Black Sea, Blast furnace, Blockbuster bomb, Bochum, Bockscar, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Bologna, Bomber B, Bomber destroyer, Bomber stream, Bombing of Bangkok in World War II, Bombing of Braunschweig (October 1944), Bombing of Chongqing, Bombing of Cologne in World War II, Bombing of Darmstadt in World War II, Bombing of Darwin, Bombing of Dresden in World War II, Bombing of Foggia, Bombing of Frampol, Bombing of France during World War II, Bombing of Hamburg in World War II, Bombing of Kassel in World War II, Bombing of Kobe in World War II, Bombing of Lübeck in World War II, Bombing of Mainz in World War II, Bombing of Mannheim in World War II, Bombing of Milan in World War II, Bombing of Peenemünde in World War II, Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II, Bombing of Rome in World War II, Bombing of Tokyo, Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945), Bombing of Treviso in World War II, Bombing of Warsaw in World War II, Bombing of Wieluń, Bombing of Wiener Neustadt in World War II, Bombing of Yawata (June 1944), Bombing of Zadar in World War II, Boulogne-Billancourt, Bremen, Brick, Bristol Blitz, British Army, British propaganda during World War II, Bucharest, Budapest, Cabinet (government), Cagliari, Cardiff Blitz, Carl Spaatz, Casablanca Conference, Casablanca directive, Casualty (person), Catania, Câmpina, Central Italy, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, Chōshi, Chūichi Nagumo, Chemnitz, Chengdu, Chester W. Nimitz, Chiba, Chiba, City of London, Civilian casualties of strategic bombing, Civitavecchia, Classification yard, Clifford McEwen, Close air support, Clydebank Blitz, Cologne, Combined Bomber Offensive, Combined Chiefs of Staff, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Constanța, Conurbation, Coventry Blitz, Crimean Campaign, Cultural heritage, Curtis LeMay, Customary international law, Cuxhaven, Daimler-Benz DB 601, Dalmatia, Düsseldorf, Defence of the Reich, Dehousing, Democide, Der Spiegel, Dessau, Doolittle Raid, Dornier Do 19, Dortmund, Dortmund–Ems Canal, Doubleday Canada, Dresden, Duisburg, Dutch East Indies, Dwight D. 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Adam Tooze

Adam Tooze (born 1967) is a British historian who is a professor at Columbia University.

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Adlertag

Adlertag ("Eagle Day") was the first day of Unternehmen Adlerangriff ("Operation Eagle Attack"), which was the codename of a military operation by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe (German air force) to destroy the British Royal Air Force (RAF).

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Aerial warfare

Aerial warfare is the battlespace use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.

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Aerodrome

An aerodrome (Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.

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Air attaché

An air attaché is an Air Force officer who is part of a diplomatic mission; this post is normally filled by a high-ranking officer.

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Air chief marshal

Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.

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Air marshal

Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.

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Air raids on Japan

Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people.

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Air supremacy

Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.

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Airborne leaflet propaganda

Airborne leaflet propaganda is a form of psychological warfare in which leaflets (flyers) are scattered in the air.

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Airport

An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.

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Airpower

Airpower or air power consists of the application of military strategy and strategic theory to the realm of aerial warfare.

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Akashi, Hyōgo

is a city located in southern Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, on the Seto Inland Sea west of Kobe.

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Albert Kesselring

Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.

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Albert Speer

Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.

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Alexander Golovanov

Alexander Yevgeniyevich Golovanov (7 August 1904 – 22 September 1975) was a Soviet pilot.

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Alexander Novikov

Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Но́виков; – December 3, 1976) was the Chief marshal of the aviation for the Soviet Air Force during Russia's involvement in the Second World War.

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Alfred Salter

Alfred Salter (16 June 1873 – 24 August 1945) was a British medical practitioner and Labour Party politician.

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Allied submarines in the Pacific War

Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues

The Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues is a searchable collection of vetted annotations and bibliographic information for resources including books, articles, films, CD-ROMs, and websites pertaining to nuclear topics.

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Altmark Incident

The Altmark Incident (Norwegian: Altmark-affæren; German: Altmark-Zwischenfall) was a naval incident of World War II between British destroyers and the German tanker ''Altmark'', which happened on 16–17 February 1940.

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Amagasaki

is an industrial city located in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.

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American Humanist Association

The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.

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Amerikabomber

The Amerika bomber project was an initiative of the German Reichsluftfahrtministerium to obtain a long-range strategic bomber for the Luftwaffe that would be capable of striking the United States from Germany, a round-trip distance of about.

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Ancona

Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.

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Anghel Saligny Bridge

The Anghel Saligny Bridge (formerly King Carol I Bridge) is a railroad truss bridge in Romania, across the Danube River, connecting the regions of Muntenia and Dobruja.

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Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Aomori, Aomori

is the capital city of Aomori Prefecture, in the northern Tōhoku region of northern Japan.

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Arado Ar 234

The Arado Ar 234 Blitz (English: lightning) was the world's first operational jet-powered bomber, built by the German Arado company in the closing stages of World War II.

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Arado Flugzeugwerke

Arado Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer, originally established as the Warnemünde factory of the Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen firm, that produced land-based military aircraft and seaplanes during the First World War.

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Area bombardment

In military aviation, area bombardment (or area bombing) is a type of aerial bombardment that targeted indiscriminately at a large area, such as a city block or an entire city.

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Area bombing directive

The Area Bombing Directive was a directive from the wartime British Government's Air Ministry to the Royal Air Force which ordered RAF bombers to attack the German industrial workforce and the morale of the German populace through bombing German cities and their civilian inhabitants.

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Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Auguste Perret

Auguste Perret (12 February 1874 – 25 February 1954) was a French architect and a pioneer of the architectural use of reinforced concrete.

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AuthorHouse

AuthorHouse, formerly known as 1stBooks, is a self-publishing company based in the United States.

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Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa

Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa took place over a six-month period, 22 June – December, 1941.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Ōgaki

Ōgaki Castle is a city located in Gifu, Japan.

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Ōita, Ōita

is the capital city of Ōita Prefecture, located on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

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Ōmura, Nagasaki

is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

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Ōmuta, Fukuoka

is a city in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan.

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Baedeker Blitz

The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of attacks by the Luftwaffe on English cities during the Second World War.

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Ball State University

Ball State University, commonly referred to as Ball State or BSU, is a public coeducational research university in Muncie, Indiana, United States, with two satellite facilities in Fishers and Indianapolis.

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Basil Collier

Basil Collier (1908–1983), full name John Basil Collier, was a British author of books of military history, particularly military aviation, World War II and military and political strategy.

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Battle of Berlin (RAF campaign)

The Battle of Berlin was the British bombing campaign on Berlin from November 1943 to March 1944.

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Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Kursk

The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.

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Battle of Okinawa

The (Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.

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Battle of the Beams

The Battle of the Beams was a period early in the Second World War when bombers of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) used a number of increasingly accurate systems of radio navigation for night bombing in the United Kingdom.

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Battle of the Heligoland Bight (1939)

The Battle of the Heligoland Bight was the first "named" air battle of the Second World War, which began the longest air campaign of the war, the Defence of the Reich.

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Battle of the Ruhr

The Battle of the Ruhr of 1943 was a 5-month campaign of strategic bombing during the Second World War against the Nazi Germany Ruhr Area, which had coke plants, steelworks, and 10 synthetic oil plants.

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BBC History

BBC History Magazine is a British publication devoted to history articles on both British and world history and are aimed at all levels of knowledge and interest.

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Belfast Blitz

The Belfast Blitz consisted of four German air raids on strategic targets in the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland, in April and May 1941 during World War II, causing high casualties.

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Berghahn Books

Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berlin Tempelhof Airport

Berlin Tempelhof Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Tempelhof) was one of the airports in Berlin, Germany.

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Bernd Wegner

Bernd Wegner (born 1949) is a German historian who specialised in military history and the history of Nazism.

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Big Week

Big Week or Operation Argument was a sequence of raids by the United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) from 20 to 25 February 1944, as part of the European strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany.

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Birmingham Blitz

The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing by the Nazi German Luftwaffe of the city of Birmingham and surrounding towns in central England, beginning on 9 August 1940 and ending on 23 April 1943.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Blockbuster bomb

A blockbuster bomb or cookie was any of several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF).

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Bochum

Bochum (Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and part of the Arnsberg region.

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Bockscar

Bockscar, sometimes called Bock's Car, is the name of the United States Army Air Forces B-29 bomber that dropped a Fat Man nuclear weapon over the Japanese city of Nagasaki during World War II in the second – and last – nuclear attack in history.

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Boeing B-29 Superfortress

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.

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Bologna

Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Bomber B

Bomber B was a German military aircraft design competition organised just before the start of World War II to develop a second-generation high-speed bomber for the Luftwaffe.

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Bomber destroyer

Historically, several aircraft were designated bomber destroyers prior to and during the Second World War.

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Bomber stream

The bomber stream was a saturation attack tactic developed by the Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command to overwhelm the night time German aerial defences of the Kammhuber Line during World War II.

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Bombing of Bangkok in World War II

Bangkok was bombed by the Allies on numerous occasions during World War II.

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Bombing of Braunschweig (October 1944)

During World War II Braunschweig (known as Brunswick in English) was attacked by Allied aircraft in 42 bombing raids.

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Bombing of Chongqing

The bombing of Chongqing (重慶爆撃, from 18 February 1938 to 23 August 1943) was part of a terror bombing operation conducted by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing, authorized by the Imperial General Headquarters.

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Bombing of Cologne in World War II

The German city of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids at www.koelnarchitektur.de "Internet portal for the architecture of Cologne".

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Bombing of Darmstadt in World War II

Darmstadt was bombed a number of times during World War II.

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Bombing of Darwin

The Bombing of Darwin, also known as the Battle of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia.

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Bombing of Dresden in World War II

The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.

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Bombing of Foggia

The Bombing of Foggia in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943, by Allied aircraft.

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Bombing of Frampol

The Bombing of Frampol occurred during the German invasion of Poland in 1939.

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Bombing of France during World War II

Between the time of the German victory in the Battle of France and the liberation of the country, the Western Allies bombed many locations in France.

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Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

The allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians.

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Bombing of Kassel in World War II

The Kassel World War II bombings were a set of Allied strategic bombing attacks which took place from February 1942 to March 1945.

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Bombing of Kobe in World War II

The bombing of Kobe in World War II on March 16 and 17, 1945 was part of the strategic bombing campaign waged by the United States of America against military and civilian targets and population centers during the Japan home islands campaign in the closing stages of World War II.

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Bombing of Lübeck in World War II

During World War II, the city of Lübeck was the first German city to be attacked in substantial numbers by the Royal Air Force.

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Bombing of Mainz in World War II

The German city of Mainz was bombed in multiple air raids by the Allies during World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF), as well as the United States Army Air Forces.

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Bombing of Mannheim in World War II

The German city of Mannheim in the state of Baden-Württemberg saw bombing during World War II from December 1940 until the end of the war.

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Bombing of Milan in World War II

As the main economic and industrial center in Italy, and the country’s second largest city, Milan was subjected to heavy bombing during World War II, being the most bombed city in Northern Italy and one of the most bombed cities in the country.

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Bombing of Peenemünde in World War II

The bombing of Peenemünde in World War II was carried out on several occasions as part of the overall Operation Crossbow to disrupt German secret weapon development.

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Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II

During the latter stages of World War II, Pforzheim, a town in southwestern Germany, was bombed a number of times.

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Bombing of Rome in World War II

The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943 and 1944, primarily by Allied and to a smaller degree by Axis aircraft, before the city was invaded by the Allies on June 4, 1944.

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Bombing of Tokyo

The often refers to a series of firebombing air raids by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II.

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Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945)

On the night of 9/10 March 1945 the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city.

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Bombing of Treviso in World War II

The bombing of Treviso took place on 7 April 1944, during World War II.

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Bombing of Warsaw in World War II

The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939.

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Bombing of Wieluń

The bombing of Wieluń comprised air raids on the Polish town of Wieluń by Germany's Luftwaffe (air force) on 1 September 1939.

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Bombing of Wiener Neustadt in World War II

Wiener Neustadt, a city in Austria, was the target of bombing raids during World War II by the Allies.

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Bombing of Yawata (June 1944)

The Bombing of Yawata on the night of 15/16 June 1944 was the first air raid on the Japanese home islands conducted by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) strategic bombers during World War II.

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Bombing of Zadar in World War II

The bombing of Zadar (Zara) during the Second World War by the Allies lasted from November 1943 to October 1944.

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Boulogne-Billancourt

Boulogne-Billancourt (often colloquially called simply Boulogne, until 1924 Boulogne-sur-Seine) is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Brick

A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.

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Bristol Blitz

The Bristol Blitz was the heavy bombing of Bristol, England by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during the Second World War.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British propaganda during World War II

Britain re-created the World War I Ministry of Information for the duration of World War II to generate propaganda to influence the population towards support for the war effort.

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Bucharest

Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Budapest

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Cabinet (government)

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.

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Cagliari

Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.

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Cardiff Blitz

The Cardiff Blitz refers to the bombing of Cardiff, Wales during World War II.

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Carl Spaatz

Carl Andrew Spaatz (born Spatz; June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974), nicknamed "Tooey", was an American World War II general.

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Casablanca Conference

The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.

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Casablanca directive

The Casablanca directiveChurchill, was approved by the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCOS) of the Western Allies at their 65th meeting on 21 January 1943 and issued to the appropriate the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces commanders on 4 February 1943.

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Casualty (person)

A casualty in military usage is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture or desertion.

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Catania

Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.

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Câmpina

Câmpina is a city in Prahova County, Romania, north of the county seat Ploiești, located on the main route between Wallachia and Transylvania.

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Central Italy

Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.

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Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, (21 May 1893 – 22 April 1971) was a senior Royal Air Force officer.

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Chōshi

is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan.

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Chūichi Nagumo

was a Japanese admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during World War II and onetime commander of the Kido Butai (the carrier battle group).

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Chemnitz

Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

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Chengdu

Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.

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Chester W. Nimitz

Chester William Nimitz, Sr. (February 24, 1885February 20, 1966) was a fleet admiral of the United States Navy.

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Chiba, Chiba

, literally "Thousand(s) Leaves", is the capital city of Chiba Prefecture, Japan.

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City of London

The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.

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Civilian casualties of strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is the use of airpower to destroy industrial and economic infrastructure—such as factories, oil refineries, railroads, or nuclear power plants—rather than just directly targeting military bases, supply depots, or enemy combatants.

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Civitavecchia

Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.

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Classification yard

A classification yard (American and Canadian English) or marshalling yard (British, Hong Kong, Indian, Australian and Canadian English) is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks.

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Clifford McEwen

Air Vice Marshal Clifford Mackay McEwen CB, MC, DFC & Bar (2 July 1896 – 6 August 1967) was a fighter ace in the British Royal Flying Corps during World War I and a senior commander in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II.

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Close air support

In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.

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Clydebank Blitz

The Clydebank Blitz comprised two devastating Luftwaffe air raids on the shipbuilding town of Clydebank in Scotland which took place in March 1941.

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Cologne

Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Combined Bomber Offensive

The Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) was an Anglo-American offensive of strategic bombing during World War II in Europe.

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Combined Chiefs of Staff

The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II.

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Consolidated B-24 Liberator

The Consolidated B-24 Liberator is an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California.

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Constanța

Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.

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Conurbation

A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.

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Coventry Blitz

The Coventry blitz (blitz: from the German word Blitzkrieg meaning "lightning war") was a series of bombing raids that took place on the English city of Coventry.

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Crimean Campaign

The Crimea Campaign was an eight-month-long campaign by Axis forces to conquer the Crimea peninsula, and was the scene of some of the bloodiest battles on the Eastern Front during World War II.

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Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.

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Curtis LeMay

Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.

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Customary international law

Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.

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Cuxhaven

Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Daimler-Benz DB 601

The Daimler-Benz DB 601 was a German aircraft engine built during World War II.

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Dalmatia

Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.

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Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.

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Defence of the Reich

The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Dehousing

On 30 March 1942 Professor Frederick Lindemann, Baron Cherwell, the British government's chief scientific adviser, sent to the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill a memorandum which after it had become accepted by the Cabinet became known as the dehousing paper.

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Democide

Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Dessau

Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt.

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Doolittle Raid

The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, on Saturday, April 18, 1942, was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on the island of Honshu during World War II, the first air operation to strike the Japanese Home Islands.

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Dornier Do 19

The Dornier Do 19 was a German four-engine heavy bomber that first flew on October 28, 1936.

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Dortmund

Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Dortmund–Ems Canal

The Dortmund–Ems Canal is a long canal in Germany between the inland port of the city of Dortmund and the sea port of Emden.

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Doubleday Canada

Doubleday Canada is an imprint of the publishing company Random House of Canada.

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Dresden

Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Duisburg

Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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Eastern Fleet

The British Eastern Fleet (also known after 1944 as the East Indies Fleet and the Far East Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy which existed between 1941 and 1971.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egypt–Libya Campaign

The Egypt–Libya Campaign is the name used by the United States military for the US contribution to the Allied Western Desert Campaign, during World War II.

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Eighth Air Force

The Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).

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Emergency Fighter Program

The Emergency Fighter Program (literally "Fighter Emergency Program") was the program that resulted from a decision taken on July 3, 1944 by the Luftwaffe regarding the German aircraft manufacturing companies during the last year of the Third Reich.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Enola Gay

The Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, who selected the aircraft while it was still on the assembly line.

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Erhard Milch

Erhard Milch (30 March 1892 – 25 January 1972) was a German field marshal and war criminal who oversaw the development of the Luftwaffe as part of the re-armament of Nazi Germany following World War I. During World War II, he was in charge of aircraft production; his ineffective management resulted in the decline of the German air force and its loss of air superiority as the war progressed.

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Ernst Heinkel

Dr.

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Essen

Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ettore Muti

Ettore Muti (2 May 1902 – 24 August 1943) was an Italian aviator and Fascist politician.

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Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory

Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory is a history book about World War II in Europe, written by the English historian Norman Davies.

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European theatre of World War II

The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).

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Farman F.220

The Farman F.220 and its derivatives were thick-sectioned, high-winged, four engined monoplanes from Farman Aviation Works.

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Fat Man

"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.

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Führer

Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Firebombing

Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.

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Firestorm

A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Foggia

Foggia (Foggiano: Fògge) is a city and comune of Apulia, in southern Italy, capital of the province of Foggia.

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Fourteenth Air Force

The Fourteenth Air Force (14 AF; Air Forces Strategic) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Space Command (AFSPC).

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Frampol

Frampol is a town in Poland, in Biłgoraj County, Lublin Voivodeship.

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Francesco Pricolo

Francesco Pricolo (30 January 1891 in Grumento Nova – 14 October 1980 in Rome) was an Italian aviator.

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Frankfurt

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell

Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 18863 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill.

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Frederick Taylor (historian)

Frederick Taylor (born 28 December 1947 at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire) is a British novelist and historian specialising in modern German history.

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Free French Air Forces

The Free French Air Forces (Forces Aériennes Françaises Libres, FAFL) were the air arm of the Free French Forces during the Second World War from 1940.

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French Indochina

French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

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French Naval Aviation

French Naval Aviation (often abbreviated in French to: « l'Aéronavale », or « Aviation navale » or more simply « l'Aéro ») is the naval air arm of the French Navy.

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French Resistance

The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.

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Fukui, Fukui

is the capital city of Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

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Fukuoka

is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture, situated on the northern shore of Japanese island Kyushu.

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Fukuyama, Hiroshima

is a city located on the Ashida River in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

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Fumimaro Konoe

Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.

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Gdańsk

Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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Gelsenkirchen

Gelsenkirchen is a city in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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Genoa

Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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George Bell (bishop)

George Kennedy Allen Bell (4 February 1883 – 3 October 1958) was an Anglican theologian, Dean of Canterbury, Bishop of Chichester, member of the House of Lords and a pioneer of the ecumenical movement.

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George Jones (RAAF officer)

Air Marshal Sir George Jones, (18 October 1896 – 24 August 1992) was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).

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German bombing of Rotterdam

The German bombing of Rotterdam, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.

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German Village (Dugway Proving Ground)

German Village was the nickname for a range of mock residential houses constructed in 1943 by the U.S. Army in the Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, roughly a hundred kilometers southwest of Salt Lake City, in order to conduct experiments used for the bombing of Nazi Germany.

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Gifu

is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture, Japan, and serves as the prefectural capital.

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Giulio Douhet

General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 – 15 February 1930) was an Italian general and air power theorist.

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Grenoble

Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.

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Grosseto

Grosseto is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto.

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Guam

Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Gun-type fission weapon

Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.

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H2X

H2X, officially known as the AN/APS-15, was an American ground scanning radar system used for blind bombing during World War II.

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Hachiōji, Tokyo

is a city located in the western portion of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan.

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Hagen

Hagen is the 41st-largest city in Germany.

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Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907

The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.

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Hajime Sugiyama

was a Japanese field marshal who served as successively as chief of the Army General Staff, and minister of war in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II between 1937 and 1944.

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Hamamatsu

is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

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Hamburg

Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hamm

Hamm (Latin: Hammona) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Hanoi

Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

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Hanover

Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hans Graf von Sponeck

Hans Graf von Sponeck (12 February 1888 – 23 July 1944) was a German general during World War II who was imprisoned for disobeying orders and later executed.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Harbor

A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.

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Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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Hörnum

(Sölring Frisian: Hörnem, Danish: Hørnum) is a municipality in the district of Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Headquarters

Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.

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Heavy fighter

A heavy fighter is a fighter aircraft designed to carry heavier weapons or operate at longer ranges than light fighter aircraft.

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Heinkel He 111

The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.

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Heinkel He 177

The Heinkel He 177 Greif ("Griffin") was a large, long-range heavy bomber flown by the Luftwaffe during World War II.

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Heligoland

Heligoland (Helgoland; Heligolandic Frisian: deät Lun, Mooring Frisian: Hålilönj) is a small German archipelago in the North Sea.

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Henry H. Arnold

Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.

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Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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Himeji

is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Hiratsuka, Kanagawa

is a city located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

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Hirohito

was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.

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Hitachi, Ibaraki

is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.

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Horst Boog

Horst Boog (5 January 1928 – 8 January 2016) was a German historian who specialised in the history of Nazi Germany and World War II.

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Hugo Sperrle

Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II.

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Hull Blitz

The Hull Blitz was the Nazi German bombing campaign targeting the English port city of Kingston upon Hull during the Second World War.

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Ichinomiya

is a historical term referring to the Japanese Shinto shrines with the highest shrine rank (ja:社格) in a provinceEncyclopedia of Shinto,; retrieved 2013-5-14.

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Imabari, Ehime

is a city in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.

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Imperial Japanese Army Air Service

The or, more literally, the Greater Japan Empire Army Air Corps, was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

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Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

The was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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International humanitarian law

International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International Military Tribunal for the Far East

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").

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International Review of the Red Cross

The International Review of the Red Cross is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

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Ion Antonescu

Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.

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Ise, Mie

, formerly called Ujiyamada (宇治山田), is a city located on the eastern tip of Kii Peninsula, in central Mie Prefecture (formally in Ise Province), on the island of Honshū, Japan, facing Ise Bay.

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Isernia

Isernia is a town and comune in the southern Italian region of Molise, and the capital of province of Isernia.

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Isesaki, Gunma

is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

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Isoroku Yamamoto

was a Japanese Marshal Admiral of the Navy and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II until his death.

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Italian National Institute of Statistics

The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.

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Japanese Instrument of Surrender

The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan, marking the end of World War II.

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Japanese invasion of Thailand

The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941.

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Jewel Voice Broadcast

The was the radio broadcast in which Japanese Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa 昭和天皇 Shōwa-tennō) read out the, announcing to the Japanese people that the Japanese Government had accepted the Potsdam Declaration demanding the unconditional surrender of the Japanese military at the end of World War II.

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John Buckley (historian)

John D. Buckley (born 27 March 1967) is Professor of Military History at the University of Wolverhampton.

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John Grenville

John Ashley Soames Grenville (11 January 1928 – 7 March 2011) was a historian of the modern world.

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John Keegan

Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.

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John Singleton (British judge)

Sir John Edward Singleton (18 January 1885 – 6 January 1957) was a British politician and judge.

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Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Junkers Ju 52

The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952.

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Junkers Ju 89

The Junkers Ju 89 was a heavy bomber designed for the Luftwaffe prior to World War II.

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Kagoshima

is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the south western tip of the island of Kyushu in Japan, and the largest city in the prefecture by some margin.

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Kampfgeschwader 53

Kampfgeschwader 53 "Legion Condor" (KG 53; English: Condor Legion) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.

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Kanalkampf

The Kanalkampf (Channel Battle) was the German name for air operations by the German Luftwaffe against the British Royal Air Force (RAF) over the English Channel, which marked the beginning of the Battle of Britain in July 1940, during the Second World War.

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Kantarō Suzuki

Baron was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, member and final leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April to 17 August 1945.

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Karl Dönitz

Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.

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Kassel

Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.

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Kawasaki, Kanagawa

is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

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Königsberg

Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Kōchi

is the capital city of Kōchi Prefecture located on the island of Shikoku in Japan.

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Kōfu

is the capital city of Yamanashi Prefecture in Japan.

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Kiel

Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).

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Kobe

is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture.

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Kraków

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kriegsmarine

The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.

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Kumagaya, Saitama

is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan.

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Kumamoto

is the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

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Kure, Hiroshima

is a port and major shipbuilding city situated on the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

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Kurt Student

Kurt Student (12 May 1890 – 1 July 1978) was a German paratroop general in the Luftwaffe during World War II.

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Kuwana, Mie

is a city located in Mie Prefecture, Japan.

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La Spezia

La Spezia (A Spèza in the local dialect of Spezzina), at the head of the Gulf of La Spezia in the southern part of the Liguria region of Northern Italy, is the capital city of the province of La Spezia.

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Law of war

The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).

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Lübeck

Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.

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Le Havre

Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Leapfrogging (strategy)

Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II.

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Leipzig

Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Leo McKinstry

Leo McKinstry (born 1962) is a British journalist, historian and author.

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Liège

Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.

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Life (magazine)

Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.

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Lille

Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.

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List of Polish cities damaged in World War II

As the German army retreated during the later stages of the Second World War, many of the urban areas of what is now Poland were severely damaged as a result of military action between the retreating forces of the German Wehrmacht and advancing ones of the Soviet Red Army.

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Little Boy

"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.

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Liverpool Blitz

The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the English city of Liverpool and its surrounding area, during the Second World War by the German Luftwaffe.

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Livorno

Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.

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Long Range Aviation

Long Range Aviation (r, abbr. to AДД, or ADD) is the branch of the Soviet Air Forces and Russian Air Force tasked with long-range bombardment of strategic targets with nuclear weapons.

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Lublin

Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Lyon

Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Maebashi

is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, in the northern Kantō region of Japan.

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Magdeburg

Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Mainz

Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Manchester Blitz

The Manchester Blitz (also known as the Christmas Blitz) was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester and its surrounding areas in North West England during the Second World War by the Nazi German Luftwaffe.

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Mannheim

Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.

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Marseille

Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

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Marshal of the Royal Air Force

Marshal of the Royal Air Force (MRAF) is the highest rank in the British Royal Air Force (RAF).

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Masakazu Kawabe

was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

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Materiel

Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.

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Matsuyama, Ehime

is the capital city of Ehime Prefecture on the island of Shikoku in Japan and also Shikoku's largest city, with a population of 516,459 as of December 1, 2014.

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Max Hastings

Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.

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Mönchengladbach

Mönchengladbach is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Messina

Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military strategy

Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.

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Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany)

The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938 The Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium), abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933–45).

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Mito, Ibaraki

is the capital city of Ibaraki Prefecture, in the northern Kantō region of Japan.

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Mittelland Canal

The Mittelland Canal, also known as the Midland Canal, (Mittellandkanal) is a major canal in central Germany.

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Miyakonojō

is a city in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.

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Miyazaki, Miyazaki

is the capital city of Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.

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Modern warfare

Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II.

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Moji-ku, Kitakyūshū

is a Japanese ward of the city of Kitakyūshū in Fukuoka Prefecture.

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Mokusatsu

is a Japanese noun literally meaning "kill" with "silence", and is used with a verb marker idiomatically to mean "ignore", "take no notice of" or "treat with silent contempt".

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Munich

Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Nagaoka, Niigata

is a city located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

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Nagoya

is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan.

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Nanjing

Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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Nantes

Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

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Napalm

Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.

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Naples

Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Nara, Nara

is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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National Museums Liverpool

National Museums Liverpool, formerly National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside, comprises several museums and art galleries in and around Liverpool, England.

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Naval Ordnance Laboratory

The Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL), now disestablished, formerly located in the White Oak area of Montgomery County, Maryland, was the site of considerable work that had practical impact upon world technology.

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.

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Nice

Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

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Nishinomiya

is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, between the cities of Amagasaki and Ashiya.

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Nobeoka, Miyazaki

is a city located in the north of Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.

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Noble Frankland

Anthony Noble Frankland CB, CBE, DFC, DPhil (born 4 July 1922, Westmorland), is a British historian and a former Director General of the Imperial War Museum.

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Norden bombsight

The Norden Mk.

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Norman Bottomley

Air Chief Marshal Sir Norman Howard Bottomley, (18 September 1891 – 13 August 1970) was the Yorkshire-born successor to Arthur 'Bomber' Harris as Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command in 1945.

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Norman Davies

Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.

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North American B-25 Mitchell

The North American B-25 Mitchell is an American twin-engine, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation (NAA).

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North American P-51 Mustang

The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Numazu

is a city located in eastern Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

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Nuremberg

Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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Nuremberg trials

The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.

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Oława

Oława is a town in south-western Poland with 32,674 inhabitants (2016).

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Oil

An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").

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Oil campaign of World War II

The Allied oil campaign of World War II was directed by the RAF and USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products.

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Okayama

is the capital city of Okayama Prefecture in the Chūgoku region of Japan.

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Okazaki, Aichi

is a city located in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Chastise

Operation Chastise was an attack on German dams carried out on 16–17 May 1943 by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, later called the Dam Busters, using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis.

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Operation Crossbow

Crossbow was the code name of the World War II campaign of Anglo-American "operations against all phases of the German long-range weapons programme.

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Operation Downfall

Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.

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Operation Dragoon

Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.

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Operation Hydra (1943)

Operation Hydra was a Royal Air Force attack on the Peenemünde Army Research Center on the night of 17/18 August 1943.

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Operation Matterhorn

Operation Matterhorn was a military operation of the United States Army Air Forces in World War II for the strategic bombing of Japanese forces by B-29 Superfortresses based in India and China.

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Operation Retribution (1941)

Operation Retribution (Unternehmen Strafgericht), also known as Operation Punishment, was the April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade, the capital of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in retaliation for the coup d'état that overthrew the government that had signed the Tripartite Pact.

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Operation Sea Lion

Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.

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Operation Steinbock

Baby Blitz or Operation Steinbock (Unternehmen Steinbock) was a strategic bombing campaign by the German air force (the Luftwaffe) during the Second World War.

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Operation Tidal Wave

Operation Tidal Wave was an air attack by bombers of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) based in Libya and Southern Italy on nine oil refineries around Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943, during World War II.

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Operations research

Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.

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Organic unit

An organic unit is a military unit that is a permanent part of a larger unit and (usually) provides some specialized capability to that parent unit.

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Orléans

Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.

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Osaka

() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Overcast

Overcast or overcast weather, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization, is the meteorological condition of clouds obscuring at least 95% of the sky.

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Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.

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Padua

Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

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Palermo

Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Patrick Blackett

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett (18 November 1897 – 13 July 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism, winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1948.

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Paul Johnson (writer)

Paul Bede Johnson (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, popular historian, speechwriter, and author.

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Pescara

Pescara (Abruzzese: Pescàrë; Pescarese: Piscàrë) is the capital city of the Province of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of Italy.

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Petlyakov Pe-8

The Petlyakov Pe-8 was a Soviet heavy bomber designed before World War II, and the only four-engine bomber the USSR built during the war.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phoney War

The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Pisa

Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Ploiești

Ploiești (older spelling: Ploești) is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania.

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Plutonium-239

Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Plymouth Blitz

The Plymouth Blitz was a series of bombing raids carried out by the Nazi German Luftwaffe on the English city of Plymouth in the Second World War.

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Pointblank directive

The Pointblank directive authorised the initiation of Operation Pointblank, the code name for the primary portion of the Allied Combined Bomber Offensive intended to cripple or destroy the German aircraft fighter strength, thus drawing it away from frontline operations and ensuring it would not be an obstacle to the invasion of Northwest Europe.

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Positive law

Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.

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Potsdam Declaration

The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.

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Precision bombing

Precision bombing refers to the attempted aerial bombing of a target with some degree of accuracy, with the aim of maximising target damage or limiting collateral damage.

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Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni

General was a Japanese imperial prince, a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days.

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Propaganda

Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.

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Psychological warfare

Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.

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Pursuit Brigade

The Pursuit Brigade (Brygada Pościgowa) was a Polish World War II unit of the Polish Air Force.

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Pushkin, Russia

Pushkin (Пушкин) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.

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PZL.23 Karaś

The PZL.23 Karaś (crucian carp) was a Polish light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft designed in the early 1930s by PZL in Warsaw.

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Radar

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radiation Effects Research Foundation

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is a joint U.S.-Japan research organization responsible for studying the medical effects of radiation and associated diseases in humans for the welfare of the survivors and all humankind.

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RAF Bomber Command

RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.

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Reconnaissance aircraft

A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.

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Reggio Calabria

Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.

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Renault

Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.

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Retorsion

Retorsion (from rétorsion, from retortus, influenced by Late Latin, 1585–95, torsi, a twisting, wringing), a term used in international law, is an act perpetrated by one nation upon another in retaliation for a similar act perpetrated by the other nation.

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Rhine

--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Richard Peirse

Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse, (30 September 1892 – 5 August 1970) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.

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Richard Stokes

Major Richard Rapier Stokes, (27 January 1897 – 3 August 1957) was a British soldier and Labour politician who served briefly as Lord Privy Seal in 1951.

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Rimini

Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.

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Rino Corso Fougier

Rino Corso Fougier (14 November 1894 in Bastia – 24 April 1963 in Rome) was a Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force) general.

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Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury

Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, (27 August 1893 – 23 February 1972), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947, was a British Conservative politician.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Romania in World War II

Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Ronald H. Spector

Ronald H. Spector is a military historian, who contributes to scholarly journals and also teaches history.

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Rostock

Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Rosyth

Rosyth (Ros Fhìobh, "headland of Fife") is a town on the Firth of Forth, three miles (4.8 km) south of the centre of Dunfermline.

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Rouen

Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royan

Royan (in Saintongeais dialect) is a commune in the south-west of France, located in the department of Charente-Maritime (Nouvelle-Aquitaine region).

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Rudolph Rummel

Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.

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Ruhr

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Rutgers University Press

Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.

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Ruth Sivard

Ruth Leger Sivard (November 25, 1915 – August 21, 2015) was an American economist.

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Saaremaa

Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.

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Saga, Saga

is the capital city of Saga Prefecture, located on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

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Saint-Étienne

Saint-Étienne (Sant-Etiève; Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon.

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Sakai

is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan on the edge of Osaka Bay at the mouth of the Yamato River.

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Sasebo, Nagasaki

is a core city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

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Scapa Flow

Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.

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Schnellbomber

A Schnellbomber (German; literally "fast bomber") is a bomber that relies upon speed to avoid enemy fighters, rather than having defensive armament and armor.

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Schweinfurt

Schweinfurt (in German literally 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 27 km northeast of Würzburg.

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Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission

The Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission was a strategic bombing mission during World War II.

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Second General Army (Japan)

The was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of western Honshū, Kyūshū and Shikoku during the final stage of the Pacific War.

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Second Raid on Schweinfurt

The second Schweinfurt raid was a World War II air battle that took place October 14, 1943, over Nazi Germany between forces of the United States 8th Air Force and German Luftwaffe's fighter arm (Jagdwaffe).

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Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.

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Sendai

is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo.

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Sergei Khudyakov

Sergei Alexandrovich Khudyakov (Սերգեյ Ալեքսանդրի Խուդյակով; Серге́й Алекса́ндрович Худяко́в); (born Armenak Artem Khanperiants (Արմենակ Արտեմ Խանփերյանց, – 18 April 1950), was a Soviet Armenian Marshal of the aviation.

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Shanghai

Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Sheffield Blitz

The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of German Luftwaffe bombing in Sheffield, England, during the Second World War.

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Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka

is the easternmost of the three wards of the city of Shizuoka in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

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Shimonoseki

is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

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Shizuoka, Shizuoka

is the capital city of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, and the prefecture's second-largest city in both population and area.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Siena

Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.

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Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet, (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War.

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Snagov

Snagov (population: 6,041) is a commune, located 40 km north of Bucharest in Ilfov County, Romania.

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Sortie

A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.

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Southampton Blitz

The Southampton Blitz was the heavy bombing of Southampton by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during World War II.

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Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.

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Soviet Air Forces

The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet Naval Aviation

Soviet Naval Aviation (AV-MF, for Авиация военно-морского флота in Russian, or Aviatsiya voyenno-morskogo flota, literally "aviation of the military maritime fleet") was a part of the Soviet Navy.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Stanley Baldwin

Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, (3 August 186714 December 1947) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who dominated the government in his country between the world wars.

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Strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.

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Stuttgart

Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Suburb

A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Sylt

Sylt (Sild; Söl'ring North Frisian: Söl) is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, and well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline.

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Synagogue

A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.

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Szczecin

Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.

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Takamatsu, Kagawa

is a city located in central Kagawa Prefecture on the island of Shikoku in Japan, and is the capital city of the prefectural government.

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Teișani

Teișani is a commune in Prahova County, Romania.

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Telford Taylor

Telford Taylor (February 24, 1908 – May 23, 1998) was an American lawyer best known for his role in the Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II, his opposition to Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s, and his outspoken criticism of U.S. actions during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Terni

Terni (Interamna Nahars) is a city in the southern portion of the region of Umbria in central Italy.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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The Bomber Command War Diaries

The Bomber Command War Diaries (subtitled: An Operational Reference Book, 1939 -1945) is a book by the British military historian Martin Middlebrook and the researcher Chris Everitt that documents every operation by RAF Bomber Command in Europe in World War II.

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The bomber will always get through

The bomber will always get through was a phrase used by Stanley Baldwin in 1932 (although the theory was originally developed by Italian General Giulio Douhet), in the speech "A Fear for the Future" to the British Parliament.

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The Hump

The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China.

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The Royal British Legion

The Royal British Legion (RBL), sometimes called The British Legion or The Legion, is a British charity providing financial, social and emotional support to members and veterans of the British Armed Forces, their families and dependants.

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The Wages of Destruction

The Wages of Destruction is a non-fiction book detailing the economic history of Nazi Germany.

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Three Non-Nuclear Principles

Japan's are a parliamentary resolution (never adopted into law) that have guided Japanese nuclear policy since their inception in the late 1960s, and reflect general public sentiment and national policy since the end of World War II.

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Tiger Force (air)

Tiger Force, also known as the Very Long Range Bomber Force, was the name given to a World War II British Commonwealth long-range heavy bomber force, formed in 1945, from squadrons serving with RAF Bomber Command in Europe, for proposed use against targets in Japan.

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Tiger I

The Tiger I is a German heavy tank of World War II deployed from 1942 in Africa and Europe, usually in independent heavy tank battalions.

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Tinian

Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

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Tokushima Prefecture

is a prefecture of Japan located on Shikoku island.

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Tokuyama, Yamaguchi

was a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

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Tomasz Szarota

Tomasz Szarota (born 1940) is a Polish historian and publicist.

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Total war

Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.

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Tower Hill Memorial

The Tower Hill Memorial is a pair of Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials in Trinity Square, on Tower Hill in London, England.

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Toyama, Toyama

is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Chūbu region on central Honshū, about north of the city of Nagoya and northwest of Tokyo.

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Toyohashi

is a city in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

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Transaction Publishers

Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.

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Trapani

Trapani (Tràpani; Drepanon, Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy.

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Treviso

Treviso (Venetian: Trevixo) is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

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Trieste

Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.

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Tsu, Mie

is the capital city of Mie Prefecture, Japan.

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Tsuruga, Fukui

is a city in Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

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Turin

Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Twentieth Air Force

The Twentieth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (20 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). It is headquartered at Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. 20 AF's primary mission is Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) operations. The Twentieth Air Force commander is also the Commander, Task Force 214 (TF 214), which provides alert ICBMs to the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Established on 4 April 1944 at Washington D.C, 20 AF was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force deployed to the Pacific Theater of World War II. Operating initially from bases in India and staging though bases in China, 20 AF conducted strategic bombardment of the Japanese Home Islands. It relocated to the Mariana Islands in late 1944, and continued the strategic bombardment campaign against Japan until the Japanese capitulation in August 1945. The 20 AF 509th Composite Group conducted the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945. Deactivated on 1 March 1955, the command was reactivated 1 September 1991, as a component of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) and became operationally responsible for all land-based Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles.

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Type XXI submarine

Type XXI U-boats were a class of German diesel-electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.

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Type XXIII submarine

German Type XXIII submarines were the first so-called elektroboats to become operational.

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U-boat

U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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Ube, Yamaguchi

is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan on the Seto Inland Sea.

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Unconditional surrender

An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.

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United States Army Air Forces

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe

The United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) was a formation of the United States Army Air Forces.

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United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific

The United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific (USASTAF) was a World War II command and control authority of the United States Army Air Forces in the Pacific theater of World War II.

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United States Strategic Bombing Survey

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was a written report created by a board of experts assembled to produce an impartial assessment of the effects of Anglo-American strategic bombing of Nazi Germany during the European theatre of World War II.

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Ural bomber

The Ural bomber was the initial aircraft design program/competition to develop a long-range bomber for the Luftwaffe, created and led by General Walther Wever in the early 1930s.

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Uranium-235

Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Urbino

Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.

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Utrecht

Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.

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Utrecht University

Utrecht University (UU; Universiteit Utrecht, formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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Utrecht University School of Economics

Utrecht University School of Economics (USE) is the Economics department of Utrecht University, in the Netherlands.

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Utsunomiya

is the capital and largest city of Tochigi Prefecture, in the northern Kantō region of Japan.

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V-1 flying bomb

The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.

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V-2 rocket

The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.

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V-weapons

V-weapons, known in original German as Vergeltungswaffen (German: "retaliatory weapons", "reprisal weapons"), were a particular set of long-range artillery weapons designed for strategic bombing during World War II, particularly terror bombing and/or aerial bombing of cities.

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Vasily Sokolovsky

Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Васи́лий Дани́лович Соколо́вский; July 21, 1897 – May 10, 1968) was a Soviet military commander.

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Vatican City

Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Vicenza

Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.

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Victory over Japan Day

Victory over Japan Day (also known as V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day) is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect ending the war.

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Viterbo

Viterbo (Viterbese: Veterbe, Viterbium) is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo.

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Wakayama, Wakayama

is the capital city of Wakayama Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Walter J. Boyne

Walter J. Boyne (born 1929) is a retired United States Air Force officer, Command Pilot, combat veteran, aviation historian, and author of more than 50 books and over 1,000 magazine articles.

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Walther Wever (general)

Walther Wever (11 November 1887 – 3 June 1936) was a pre-World War II Luftwaffe Commander.

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War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Werner Rahn

Werner Rahn (born June 9, 1939 in Ilsenburg) is a naval historian and former German naval officer.

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Whitehall

Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.

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Wieluń

Wieluń (Welun) is a city in central Poland with 22,973 inhabitants (2016).

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Wilhelmshaven

Wilhelmshaven (meaning William's Harbour) is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Wolfgang Schreyer

Wolfgang Schreyer (20 November 1927 – 14 November 2017) was a German writer of fiction, historic adventures mixed with documentary, science fiction for TV shows and movies and is best known as the author of over 20 adventure stories.

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Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen

Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 – 12 July 1945) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) during World War II.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wrocław

Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.

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Wuhan

Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.

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XX Bomber Command

The XX Bomber Command is an inactive United States Air Force unit.

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XXI Bomber Command

The XXI Bomber Command (XXI BC) was a unit of the Twentieth Air Force in the Mariana Islands for strategic bombing during World War II.

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Yahata, Fukuoka

was a city in Japan until it was absorbed into the newly created city of Kitakyushu in 1963.

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Yokkaichi, Mie

is a city located in Mie Prefecture, Japan.

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Yokohama

, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.

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Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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Zadar

Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.

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15th Expeditionary Mobility Task Force

The Fifteenth Expeditionary Mobility Task Force (15 ETF) was one of two ETFs assigned to the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command (AMC) and was headquartered at Travis Air Force Base, California.

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5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.

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8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41

The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.

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Redirects here:

Aerial bombing during World War II, Air bombing on Germany, Allied bombing of Germany, Bombing during World War II, Bombing of Germany, Bombings of Germany, Disadvantage of precision bombing, Strategic Bombing During World War II, Strategic bombing in World War II, The Bombing of Germany.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_bombing_during_World_War_II

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