136 relations: Absorption (pharmacology), Acne, Adenomyosis, Agonist, Aldosterone, Allylestrenol, Anabolic steroid, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Androgen-dependent condition, Anovulation, Antiandrogen, Antihemorrhagic, Antimineralocorticoid, Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Australia, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Biotransformation, Blood lipids, Breast pain, Canada, Clinical trial, Coagulation, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Cyanomethyl, CYP3A4, Cyproterone acetate, Cytochrome P450, Depression (mood), Derivative (chemistry), Dienolone, Double bond, Drug metabolism, Drugs (journal), Dysmenorrhea, Elimination (pharmacology), Endometriosis, Endometrium, Enzyme, Enzyme inducer, Enzyme inhibitor, Erythromycin, Estradiol (medication), Estradiol valerate, Estrane, Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen receptor, ..., Ethinylestradiol, Ethyldienolone, Ethylestrenol, Ethyltestosterone, Ethynyl, Etonogestrel, Europe, Flatulence, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Generic drug, Germany, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucuronide, Gonadotropin, Headache, Hirsutism, Hormone, Human serum albumin, Hydrocortisone, In vitro, Irregular menstruation, Japan, Jena, Jenapharm, Ketoconazole, Leuprorelin, Levonorgestrel, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipid metabolism, Liver, Liver function tests, Luteinizing hormone, Medication, Menopause, Menorrhagia, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methyldienolone, Methyltestosterone, Metribolone, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Nandrolone, Nausea, Netherlands, Norethisterone, Norgestrel, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Organic compound, Ovulation, Pharmacokinetics, Plasma protein binding, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Potency (pharmacology), Prodrug, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Promegestone, Receptor antagonist, Rifampicin, Russia, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Side effect, South America, Southeast Asia, Steroid, Steroidal antiandrogen, Structural analog, Structure–activity relationship, Sulfate, Symptom, Testosterone, Therapy, Thyroid, Topterone, Trademark distinctiveness, Transcortin, United Kingdom, United States, Urine, Weight gain, 5α-Reductase, 5β-Reductase. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Adenomyosis is a gynecologic medical condition characterized by the abnormal presence of endometrial tissue (the inner lining of the uterus) within the myometrium (the thick, muscular layer of the uterus).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Allylestrenol, sold under the brand names Gestanin and Turinal among others, is a progestin medication which is used to treat recurrent and threatened miscarriage and to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
An androgen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on, or is sensitive to, the presence of androgenic activity in the body.
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antihemorrhagic (antihæmorrhagic) agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis (stops bleeding).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
In organic chemistry, the term cyanomethyl (cyanide (N≡C) + methyl (CH3)) designates.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol (EE) under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestogen which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Dienolone (developmental code name RU-3118; online product names Trenazone, Dienazone), or nordienolone, also known as 19-nor-δ9(10)-testosterone, δ9(10)-nandrolone, or estra-4,9(10)-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group that was never marketed.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
Drugs is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Adis International (Springer Science + Business Media) that covers topics in drugs and therapeutics.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estradiol valerate, sold under the brand names Progynova, Progynon Depot, and Delestrogen among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Ethyldienolone, also known as 17α-methyl-19-nor-δ9-testosterone, as well as 17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
Ethylestrenol, also known as ethyloestrenol or ethylnandrol and sold under the brand names Maxibolin and Orabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used in the past for a variety of indications such as to promote weight gain and to treat anemia and osteoporosis but has been discontinued for use in humans.
Ethyltestosterone, or 17α-ethyltestosterone, also known as 17α-ethylandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one or 17α-pregn-4-en-17-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 17α-alkylated group related to methyltestosterone which was never marketed.
In organic chemistry, the term ethynyl designates.
Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
Jenapharm is a pharmaceutical company from Jena, Germany.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the break down or storage of fats for energy.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methyldienolone (developmental code name RU-3467), also known as 17α-methyl-19-nor-δ9-testosterone, as well as 17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
Methyltestosterone, sold under the brand names Android, Metandren, and Testred among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, at low doses as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, osteoporosis, and low sexual desire in women, and to treat breast cancer in women.
Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norgestrel, sold under the brand name Ovral among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Promegestone, sold under the brand name Surgestone, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroidal antiandrogen (SAA) is an antiandrogen with a steroidal chemical structure.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
commented out as it doesn't appear to be immediately relevant & it is in the wrong place if it is relevant-->The structure–activity relationship (SAR) is the relationship between the chemical or 3D structure of a molecule and its biological activity.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Topterone (developmental code name WIN-17665), also known as 17α-propyltestosterone (or simply propyltestosterone) or as 17α-propylandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a steroidal antiandrogen that was first reported in 1978 and was developed for topical administration but, due to poor effectiveness, was never marketed.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5β-Reductase, or Δ4-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase (3-oxo-Δ4-steroid 5β-reductase, androstenedione 5β-reductase, cholestenone 5β-reductase, cortisone 5β-reductase, cortisone Δ4-5β-reductase, steroid 5β-reductase, testosterone 5β-reductase, Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase, Δ4-5β-reductase, Δ4-hydrogenase, 4,5β-dihydrocortisone:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase, 3-oxo-5β-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 5β-cholestan-3-one:NADP+ 4,5-oxidoreductase.
ATC code G03DB08, ATCvet code QG03DB08, Dienogestril, Dinagest, Klaira, M 18,575, M 18575, M-18,575, M-18575, M18575, MJR 35, MJR-35, MJR35, Natazia, Qlaira, SH 660, SH-660, SH660, STS 557, STS-557, STS557, Valette (drug), Visanne, ZK 37,659, ZK 37659, ZK-37,659, ZK-37659, ZK37659.