243 relations: Accommodation (eye), Activated carbon, Active metabolite, Adrenergic antagonist, Adrenergic receptor, Agoraphobia, Agranulocytosis, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amine, Amitriptyline, Amnesia, Amoxapine, Analgesic, Antiarrhythmic agent, Anticholinergic, Antidote, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Anuria, Apnea, Ataxia, Atropine, Australians, Benzatropine, Binding selectivity, Bioavailability, Biological activity, Biological half-life, Blinded experiment, Blurred vision, Body dysmorphic disorder, Brain, Butriptyline, Cardiac arrest, CAS Registry Number, Case report, Cataplexy, Central nervous system, Chemical formula, Chemical nomenclature, Chemical structure, Chemical synapse, Chlorine, Chlorpromazine, Cholinergic, Chronic pain, Citalopram, Clinical trial, Cmax (pharmacology), ..., Cognitive deficit, Coma, Constipation, Cyanosis, CYP2D6, Cyproheptadine, Demethylation, Depersonalization disorder, Derivative (chemistry), Desipramine, Developing country, Dibenzazepine, Diuretic, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopamine antagonist, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopamine receptor D5, Dose-ranging study, Dosulepin, Doxepin, Drug overdose, Duloxetine, Dysgeusia, Edema, Effect size, English language, Eosinophilia, Epileptic seizure, Erectile dysfunction, Escitalopram, Europe, Excretion, Extracellular, Feces, Fever, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Free base, French language, Galactorrhea, Generic drug, German language, Glaucoma, Hair loss, Health system, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Hepatitis, Histamine, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine H2 receptor, Histamine H3 receptor, Histamine H4 receptor, Human serum albumin, Hydrochloride, Hyperhidrosis, Hypertensive crisis, Hypocalcaemia, Hypokalemia, Hypomania, Imipramine, Infant, Intravenous therapy, Iprindole, Isocarboxazid, Italian language, Jaundice, Kidney, Latin, Leukopenia, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Lofepramine, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Me-too compound, Mechanism of action, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methodology, Milnacipran, Moclobemide, Molecular mass, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, Mydriasis, Myocardial infarction, Narcolepsy, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuron, Neuropathic pain, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter transporter, Nocturnal enuresis, Norclomipramine, Norepinephrine, Nortriptyline, Novartis, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Oliguria, Oral administration, Orthostatic hypotension, Pancytopenia, Panic disorder, Paresthesia, Paroxetine, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacovigilance, Phenelzine, Placebo-controlled study, Plasma protein binding, Platelet, Pneumonitis, Positron emission tomography, Potency (pharmacology), Premature ejaculation, Protriptyline, QT interval, Quinidine, Rebound effect, Receptor antagonist, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Ring (chemistry), Salt (chemistry), Sedation, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Selegiline, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Side chain, Side effect, Sigma-1 receptor, Sleep paralysis, Sodium channel, Sodium channel blocker, Somnolence, Spanish language, Structural analog, Suicide, Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, Tail chasing, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Thrombocytopenia, Tinnitus, Tolerability, Torsades de pointes, Toxicity, Trademark distinctiveness, Tranylcypromine, Treatment-resistant depression, Tremor, Trichotillomania, Tricyclic, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trimipramine, United Kingdom, United States, Urinary retention, Urination, Urine, Vasopressin, Venlafaxine, Volume of distribution, White blood cell, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Xerostomia, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (193 more) » « Shrink index
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
An adrenergic antagonist is a drug that inhibits the function of adrenergic receptors.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amoxapine, sold under the brand name Asendin among others, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA), though it is often classified as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).
Benzatropine, also known as benztropine, is an anticholinergic marketed under the trade name Cogentin which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, and dystonia.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Butriptyline, sold under the brand name Evadyne among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and several other European countries for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).
In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.
Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin and Pertofrane among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dibenzazepine (iminostilbene) is a chemical compound with two benzene rings fused to an azepine group.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.
A dose-ranging study is a clinical trial where different doses of an agent (e.g. a drug) are tested against each other to establish which dose works best and/or is least harmful.
Dosulepin, also known as dothiepin and sold under the brand name Prothiaden among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
Dysgeusia, also known as parageusia, is a distortion of the sense of taste.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
The histamine H4 receptor is, like the other three histamine receptors, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iprindole, sold under the brand names Prondol, Galatur, and Tertran, is an atypical tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and Ireland for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed.
Isocarboxazid (Marplan, Marplon, Enerzer) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class used as an antidepressant.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lofepramine, sold under the brand names Gamanil, Lomont, and Tymelyt among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
A Me-too drug is a drug product that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, or in common parlance the drug) which is chemically related, and usually very structurally similar, to an existing active pharmaceutical ingredient.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.
The human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, encoded by the gene, is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
Norclomipramine, also known as N-desmethylclomipramine and chlordesipramine, is the major active metabolite of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine (Anafranil).
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand names Allegron, Aventyl, Noritren, Nortrilen, and Pamelor among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used to treat clinical depression.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Premature ejaculation (PE) occurs when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen soon after sexual activity and with minimal penile stimulation.
Protriptyline, sold under the brand name Vivactil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), specifically a secondary amine, indicated for the treatment of depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.
Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart.
The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
In chemistry, a ring is an ambiguous term referring either to a simple cycle of atoms and bonds in a molecule or to a connected set of atoms and bonds in which every atom and bond is a member of a cycle (also called a ring system).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
Sleep paralysis is when, during awakening or falling asleep, a person is aware but unable to move or speak.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair the conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is characterized by excessive unsuppressible release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) either from the posterior pituitary gland, or an abnormal non-pituitary source.
Tail chasing is a behaviour exhibited in dogs that is characterized by spinning in tight circles in either direction, and can be slow and focused on the tail or fast and unfocused.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
Torsades de pointes or torsade depointes (TdP or simply torsade(s)) (translated as "twisting of the points"), is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden cardiac death.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Trichotillomania (TTM), also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair.
Tricyclics are chemical compounds that contain three interconnected rings of atoms.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Trimipramine, sold under the brand name Surmontil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
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