321 relations: A-type main-sequence star, Abbasid Caliphate, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Additive color, Affirming the consequent, Age of the universe, Alexander I of Russia, American Civil War, Anatase, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anne of Brittany, Antichrist, Apelles, Apocalypse, Ara Pacis, Atonement in Judaism, Augustus, Aura (paranormal), Autumn, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Bahrain, Balmer series, Barong Tagalog, Baroque, Bavaria, Bedouin, Black, Black dwarf, Bleach, Blue-collar worker, Bolsheviks, Book of Revelation, Boston, Brookite, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hypochlorite, Calcium oxide, Calvinism, Cassock, Catholic Church, Caucasian race, Cennino Cennini, Chalk, Changbai Mountains, Chauvet Cave, Chemical bond, Chess, Christmas, ..., Chromatic adaptation, Chromophore, Cistercians, Cloud, Coccolithophore, Cockfight, Color, Color constancy, Color realism (art style), Color temperature, Compact star, Cone cell, Debutante, Degenerate matter, Deity, Delft, Density, Dhu al-Hijjah, Di Penates, Diffuse reflection, Dominican Order, Double bond, Dutch Reformed Church, Easter, Effective temperature, Egypt, Electromagnetic spectrum, Empire style, Empress Joséphine, Eucharist, Fatimid Caliphate, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Finnish Civil War, Flag of England, Flag of France, Flag of India, Flag of Ireland, Flag of Russia, Flag of the Arab Revolt, Flag of the Netherlands, Flag of the Philippines, Flag of the United Kingdom, Flag of the United States, Flag of Vatican City, Florence, Fluorescence, Fluorescent lamp, Folk costume, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Fra Angelico, François Gérard, Francis II of France, French Revolution, Geneva Conventions, George Washington, German resistance to Nazism, Ghent Altarpiece, Ghost, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Glacier, Go (game), Gospel of Mark, Gothic language, Great White Brotherhood, Greek mythology, Gypsum, Hajj, Hawaiian language, Heat, Heraldry, House of Bourbon, House of Hohenzollern, Hue, Hundred Years' War, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Ice, Icelandic language, Ifá, Ihram, Ihram clothing, Il Sodoma, Ilmenite, Incandescent light bulb, International Commission on Illumination, Inuit, Iran, Iraq, Isaac Newton, Isis, Islam, Islamic calendar, Ivy League, J. Edgar Hoover, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Jan van Eyck, Japan, Japanese rock garden, Jesus, Jordan, Jute, Kazimir Malevich, Kelvin, Kimono, Koine Greek, Kuwait, Lamb of God, Lascaux, Last Judgment, Late Latin, Le Corbusier, Lead carbonate, Leon Battista Alberti, Light, Lightness, Lilium, Limestone, Lists of colors, Luminosity, Main sequence, Marie Antoinette, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mary, Queen of Scots, Mass, Mauna Kea, Metamerism (color), Middle Ages, Milan Cathedral, Modern architecture, Monarchism, Mont Blanc, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Mummy, Nazi Germany, Neoclassical architecture, Netherlands, New Testament, Nile, Norway, Nutrient, Obatala, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old North Church, Opposition to immigration, Optical brightener, Order of Saint Benedict, Ottobeuren Abbey, Oxford English Dictionary, Pahlavi dynasty, Paleolithic, Palla (garment), Parthenon, Pearl, Peroxide, Peter the Great, Philippines, Photon, Piet Mondrian, Pilgrimage, Pliny the Elder, Pneumonia, Pope, Pope Pius V, Primary color, Prism, Protestantism, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Quartz, Queen Victoria, Quraysh, Rabbi, Racism, Red Army, Reducing agent, RGB color model, Richard Meier, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rococo, Roman Forum, Romance languages, Rome, Rooster, Russian Civil War, Russian Revolution, Rutile, Saint George's Cross, Saint Peter, Sand, Sandalwood, Sanskrit, Scattering, Shades of white, Shia Islam, Shinto, Silver (color), Single bond, Snow, Sodium dithionite, Sodium hypochlorite, Sodium perborate, Sodium percarbonate, Solar mass, Southern United States, Spectral power distribution, Specular reflection, Star, Stellar classification, Sun, Sunlight, Sunni Islam, Sunscreen, Syria, Talmud, Taoism, Tara (Buddhism), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The dress, Theophrastus, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Thermal radiation, Tibetan Buddhism, Tiger, Titanium dioxide, Titanium oxide, Toga, Toothpaste, Transfiguration of Jesus, Trinity Sunday, Ultraviolet, Umayyad Caliphate, Unicorn, United Arab Emirates, United States Census Bureau, Uranium, Vesta (mythology), Vestal Virgin, Vinegar, Violence against women, Violet (color), Visible spectrum, Vitruvius, War in the Vendée, White dwarf, White feather, White flag, White horse (mythology), White House, White lead, White Light, White movement, White noise, White paper, White people, White point, White Revolution, White ribbon, White Rose, White-collar worker, White-shoe firm, Yin and yang, Yom Kippur, Yoruba religion, Zen, Zeus, Zinc oxide, 2010 United States Census. Expand index (271 more) » « Shrink index
A-type main-sequence star
An A-type main-sequence star (A V) or A dwarf star is a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type A and luminosity class V. These stars have spectra which are defined by strong hydrogen Balmer absorption lines.
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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
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Additive color is a method to create color by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red, green, and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system.
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Affirming the consequent
Affirming the consequent, sometimes called converse error, fallacy of the converse or confusion of necessity and sufficiency, is a formal fallacy of inferring the converse from the original statement.
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Age of the universe
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
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Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
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American Civil War
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
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Anatase is a mineral form of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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Anne of Brittany
Anne of Brittany (25/26 January 1477 – 9 January 1514) was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death.
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In Christianity, antichrist is a term found solely in the First Epistle of John and Second Epistle of John, and often lowercased in Bible translations, in accordance with its introductory appearance: "Children, it is the last hour! As you heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come".
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Apelles of Kos (Ἀπελλῆς; fl. 4th century BC) was a renowned painter of ancient Greece.
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An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.
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The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.
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Atonement in Judaism
Atonement in Judaism is the process of causing a transgression to be forgiven or pardoned.
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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
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An aura or Human energy field is, according to New Age beliefs, a colored emanation said to enclose a human body or any animal or object.
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Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.
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Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun (16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842), also known as Madame Lebrun or Madame Le Brun, was a prominent French portrait painter of the late eighteenth century.
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Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
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The Balmer series or Balmer lines in atomic physics, is the designation of one of a set of six named series describing the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom.
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The Barong Tagalog, more commonly known as simply Barong (and occasionally called Baro), is an embroidered formal shirt and considered the national dress of the Philippines.
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The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
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Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
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The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
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Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
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A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light.
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Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
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In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor.
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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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Book of Revelation
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
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Brookite is the orthorhombic variant of titanium dioxide, TiO2, which occurs in four natural polymorphic forms (minerals with the same composition but different structure).
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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
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Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.
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Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, among others.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
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Cennino d'Andrea Cennini (c. 1360 – before 1427) was an Italian painter influenced by Giotto.
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Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
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The Changbai Mountains are a major mountain range in Northeast Asia.
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The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the best-preserved figurative cave paintings in the world, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life.
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A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
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Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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Chromatic adaptation is the human visual system’s ability to adjust to changes in illumination in order to preserve the appearance of object colors.
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A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.
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A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
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In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
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A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
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A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.
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Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
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Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions.
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Color realism (art style)
Color realism is a fine art style where accurately portrayed colors create a sense of space and form.
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The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
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In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
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Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
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A debutante or deb (from the French débutante, "female beginner") is a girl or young woman of an aristocratic or upper-class family who has reached maturity and, as a new adult, comes out into society at a formal "debut".
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Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.
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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
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Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
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Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.
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In ancient Roman religion, the Di Penates or Penates were among the dii familiares, or household deities, invoked most often in domestic rituals.
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Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
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The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
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A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
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Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
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Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
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The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
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The Empire style (style Empire) is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism.
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Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
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The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
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The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
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Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
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Finnish Civil War
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
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Flag of England
The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).
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Flag of France
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
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Flag of India
The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.
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Flag of Ireland
The national flag of Ireland (bratach na hÉireann) – frequently referred to as the Irish tricolour (trídhathach na hÉireann) – is the national flag and ensign of the Republic of Ireland.
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Flag of Russia
The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.
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Flag of the Arab Revolt
The Flag of the Arab Revolt was a flag used by the Arab nationalists during the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
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Flag of the Netherlands
The flag of the Netherlands (Vlag van Nederland) is a horizontal tricolor of red, white, and blue.
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Flag of the Philippines
The National Flag of the Philippines (Pambansang Watawat ng Pilipinas) is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and scarlet, and with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist.
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Flag of the United Kingdom
The national flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Jack, also known as the Union Flag.
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Flag of the United States
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
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Flag of Vatican City
The flag of Vatican City was adopted on June 7, 1929, the year Pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, creating a new independent state governed by the Holy See.
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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
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A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
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A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
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Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in the last book of the New Testament of the Bible, called the Book of Revelation of Jesus Christ to John of Patmos, at 6:1-8.
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Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".
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François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 – 11 January 1837 Some sources say he was born on 4 May 1770, however his tombstone (Montparnasse Cemetery, 1st division) reads: "Ici reposent – François Pascal Simon baron Gérard, né à Rome le 12 mars 1770, mort à Paris le 11 janvier 1837 – Jacques Alexandre Gérard, né à Paris le 13 avril 1780, mort à Paris le 28 octobre 1832 – Marguerite Françoise Matteï, de F. Gérard, née à Rome le 7 avril 1775, morte à Auteuil le 1er décembre 1848 – Sophie Catherine Sylvoz, Gérard, née à Chambéry le 8 1792, morte à Paris le 16 mars 1867 – La famille à leur mémoire chère."), was a French painter born in Rome, where his father occupied a post in the house of the French ambassador.
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Francis II of France
Francis II (François II) (19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France of the House of Valois-Angoulême from 1559 to 1560.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
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Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
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George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
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German resistance to Nazism
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
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The Ghent Altarpiece (or the Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, Het Lam Gods) is a very large and complex 15th-century polyptych altarpiece in St Bavo's Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium.
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In folklore, a ghost (sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living.
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Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
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Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.
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Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
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Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
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Great White Brotherhood
The Great White Brotherhood, in belief systems akin to Theosophy and New Age, are said to be supernatural beings of great power who spread spiritual teachings through selected humans.
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Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
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Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
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The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
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The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
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Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
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House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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House of Hohenzollern
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
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Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).
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Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
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Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
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Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
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Ifá is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá.
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Ihram (إحرام iḥrām, from the triconsonantal root Ḥ-R-M) is, in Islam, a sacred state which a Muslim must enter in order to perform the major pilgrimage (Hajj) or the minor pilgrimage (Umrah).
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Ihram clothing (Ahram clothing) includes men's and women's garments worn by Muslim people during the Ihram pilgrimage (Hajj) and or (umrah).
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Il Sodoma (1477 – 14 February 1549) was the name given to the Italian Renaissance painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi.
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Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
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Incandescent light bulb
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
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International Commission on Illumination
The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.
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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
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Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
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The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.
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J. Edgar Hoover
John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an American law enforcement administrator and the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States.
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James Abbott McNeill Whistler
James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 10, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom.
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Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck (before c. 1390 – 9 July 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges.
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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
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Japanese rock garden
The or "dry landscape" garden, often called a zen garden, creates a miniature stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss, pruned trees and bushes, and uses gravel or sand that is raked to represent ripples in water.
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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
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Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
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Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.
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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
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The is a traditional Japanese garment.
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Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
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Lamb of God
Lamb of God (Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Amnos tou Theou; Agnus Deī) is a title for Jesus that appears in the Gospel of John.
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Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
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The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
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Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
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Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
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Lead(II) carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3.
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Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.
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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness.
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Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers.
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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
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Lists of colors
These are lists of colors.
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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.
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In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
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Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
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Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
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Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
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Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
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Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii.
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In colorimetry, metamerism is a perceived matching of the colors with different (nonmatching) spectral power distributions.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano; Lombard: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.
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Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
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Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
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Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.
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Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
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The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
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Obatala (known as Obatalá in Latin America and Yoruba mythology) is an Orisha.
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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Old High German
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
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Old North Church
Old North Church (officially, Christ Church in the City of Boston), at 193 Salem Street, in the North End, Boston, is the location from which the famous "One if by land, two if by sea" signal is said to have been sent.
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Opposition to immigration
Opposition to immigration exists in most states with immigration, and has become a significant political issue in many countries.
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Optical brighteners, optical brightening agents (OBAs), fluorescent brightening agents (FBAs), or fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), are chemical compounds that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470 nm) by fluorescence.
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Order of Saint Benedict
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
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Ottobeuren is a Benedictine abbey, located in Ottobeuren, near Memmingen in the Bavarian Allgäu, Germany.
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Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
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The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
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Palla is a traditional ancient Roman mantle worn by women, fastened by brooches.
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The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
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A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
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Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
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Peter the Great
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
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Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrian (later; 7 March 1872 – 1 February 1944), was a Dutch painter and theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century.
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A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
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Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
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Pope Pius V
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.
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A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
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In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
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Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
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The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
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In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
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The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
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RGB color model
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
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Richard Meier (born October 12, 1934) is an American abstract artist and architect, whose geometric designs make prominent use of the color white.
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Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area.
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Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
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The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
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A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
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Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
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The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
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Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
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Saint George's Cross
In heraldry, the Saint George's Cross, also called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background, which from the Late Middle Ages became associated with Saint George, the military saint, often depicted as a crusader.
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Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
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Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.
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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
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Shades of white
Shades of white are colors that differ only slightly from pure white.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
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or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
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Silver or metallic gray is a color tone resembling gray that is a representation of the color of polished silver.
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In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.
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Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
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Sodium dithionite (also known as sodium hydrosulfite) is a white crystalline powder with a weak sulfurous odor.
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Sodium perborate is chemical compound whose chemical formula may be written,, or, more properly, ·. Its name is sometimes abbreviated as PBS.
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Sodium percarbonate is a chemical substance with formula.
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The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
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Southern United States
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
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Spectral power distribution
In radiometry, photometry and color science, a spectral power distribution (SPD) measurement describes the power per unit area per unit wavelength of an illumination (radiant exitance).
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Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
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Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
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Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
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Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
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Tara (तारा,; Tib. སྒྲོལ་མ, Dölma) or Ārya Tārā, also known as Jetsun Dölma (Tibetan language: rje btsun sgrol ma) in Tibetan Buddhism, is an important figure in Buddhism.
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
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"The dress" is a photograph that became a viral Internet sensation on 26 February 2015, when viewers disagreed over whether the colours of the item of clothing depicted were black and blue or white and gold.
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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
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Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
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Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
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Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
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The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
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Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
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Titanium oxide may refer to.
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The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
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Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
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Transfiguration of Jesus
The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain.
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Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar, and the Sunday of Pentecost in Eastern Christianity. Trinity Sunday celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The unicorn is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead.
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United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
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United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.
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In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
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Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
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Violence against women
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
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Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
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The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
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Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
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War in the Vendée
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
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A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
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A white feather has been a traditional symbol of cowardice, used and recognised especially within the British Army and in countries of the British Empire since the 18th century, especially by patriotic groups, including some early feminists, in order to shame men who were not soldiers.
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White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale.
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White horse (mythology)
White horses have a special significance in the mythologies of cultures around the world.
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The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
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White lead is the basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2.
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White Light may refer to.
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The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
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In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.
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A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.
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White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
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A white point (often referred to as reference white or target white in technical documents) is a set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction.
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The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.
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The white ribbon is an awareness ribbon sometimes used by political movements to signify or spread their beliefs.
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The White Rose (die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich.
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In many countries (such as Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States), a white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work.
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A White-shoe firm is a leading professional services firm in the United States, particularly firms that have been in existence for more than a century and represent Fortune 500 companies.
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Yin and yang
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
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Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
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The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people.
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Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
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Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
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Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
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2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
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(255, 255, 255), Color/white, FFFFFF, Hwite, Man on a white horse, Rgb(255, 255, 255), White (Colour), White (colour), White-, Whiter, Whitest.