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Alzheimer's disease

Index Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time. [1]

410 relations: A Moment to Remember, ABCA7, Abstraction, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Activities of daily living, Adverse drug reaction, Ageing, Aggression, Aging brain, Agnosia, Air pollution, Alcohol abuse, Alice Munro, Allele, Alois Alzheimer, Alzheimer's Association, American Psychiatric Association, Amino acid, Amyloid, Amyloid beta, Amyloid precursor protein, Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities, Animal-assisted therapy, Anomic aphasia, Anosognosia, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Antiviral drug, Apathy, Apolipoprotein E, Apomorphine, Apoptosis, Appetite, Apraxia, Argentina, Art therapy, Atrophy, Attachment theory, Attention, Atypical antipsychotic, Auguste Deter, Autopsy, Autosome, Away from Her, Axon, Bacteria, Bapineuzumab, Behavior modification, Beta-secretase, ..., Beta-secretase 1, BIN1, Biometal (biology), Blood test, Blood–brain barrier, Board game, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Bradycardia, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Caffeine, Calcium, Cancer, Cannabinoid, Cardiovascular disease, Caregiver, Caring for people with dementia, CASS4, CD2AP, Cell (biology), Cell culture, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrospinal fluid, Challenging behaviour, Child care, Cholesterol, Cholinergic, Chromosome 21, Cingulate cortex, Classical antiquity, Clusterin, Cocoa bean, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive deficit, Cognitive development, Cognitive reserve, Cognitive test, Cognitive training, Cohort study, Columbia University, Complement receptor 1, Confusion, Consumer Reports, Coping (psychology), Cost-of-living index, Cramp, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Crossword, CT scan, Curcumin, Cytokine, Cytoskeleton, Death receptor 6, Dehydration, Delirium, Delusion, Delusional misidentification syndrome, Dementia, Demyelinating disease, Depression of Alzheimer disease, Developed country, Development of the nervous system, Developmental disability, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis of exclusion, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Differential diagnosis, Disability, Disaccharide, Dizziness, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dominance (genetics), Donepezil, Down syndrome, Drug Effectiveness Review Project, Dysphagia, Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, Education, Emil Kraepelin, Enzyme, EPH receptor A1, Epidemiology, Episodic memory, Etanercept, Europe, Excitotoxicity, Executive functions, Exercise, Extrapyramidal system, Fatigue, Feeding tube, FERMT2, Fibril, Fine motor skill, Flavonoid, Florbetapir (18F), Fluency, Fluorine-18, Folate, Food and Drug Administration, Forest Laboratories, Forgetting, Frontal lobe, Functional symptom, Fusion protein, Galantamine, Gamma secretase, Gastric acid, Gene, Gene dosage, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome-wide association study, Ginkgo biloba, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Growth hormone, Hallucination, Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage, Head injury, Headache, Health professional, Healthy diet, Heart rate, Heredity, Herpes simplex, Histology, Histopathology, HLA-DRB5, Home care, Homeostasis, Hospice, Human brain, Human eye, Human skin, Huperzine A, Hygiene, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperphosphorylation, Hypertension, Hypothesis, Immune system, Immunotherapy, Implicit memory, Incidence (epidemiology), Infection, Inflammation, Influenza, Innate immune system, INPP5D, Institutionalisation, Ion, Iris (2001 film), Irritability, Japanese cuisine, John Bayley (writer), Julianne Moore, Keith Laws, Language, Latrepirdine, Lewy body, Life expectancy, Lisa Genova, Locus coeruleus, Long-term care, Long-term memory, Longitudinal study, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Malcolm Pointon, Malnutrition, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Medical diagnosis, Medical history, Medical Hypotheses, Medical imaging, Medical literature, Mediterranean diet, MEF2C, Memantine, Membrane-spanning 4A, Memories of Tomorrow, Memory, Memory and aging, Mental disorder, Mental process, Methylene blue, Microbiology, Microscopic scale, Microscopy, Microtubule, Microtubule-associated protein, Mild cognitive impairment, Mindfulness, Mini–Mental State Examination, Mitochondrion, Monosaccharide, Mood (psychology), Mood swing, Motivation, Multiple sclerosis, Muscle, Music therapy for Alzheimer's disease, Musical instrument, Myelin, N-terminus, National Center for Health Statistics, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Nausea, Nervous system, Neurodegeneration, Neurofibrillary tangle, Neuroinflammation, Neurological examination, Neurology, Neuron, Neuropathology, Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychological assessment, Neuropsychological test, Neuropsychology, Neurotransmitter, Neurotrophic factors, Neurulation, Nicholas Sparks, NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, NME8, Nomenclature, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nursing home care, Obesity, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oligodendrocyte, Oligomer, Orientation (mental), Oxidative stress, Palliative care, Paraphasia, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Patient safety, PBT2, Penetrance, Peptide, Perception, Periodontal disease, Philosopher, Phosphorylation, Physical therapy, Physician, PICALM, Pittsburgh compound B, Planning, Pneumonia, Positron emission tomography, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Presenilin, Pressure ulcer, Prevalence, Primary progressive aphasia, PRNP, Problem solving, Prodrome, Prodrug, Productivity, Programmed cell death, Protein folding, Proteolysis, Proteopathy, Pseudobulbar affect, Psychiatry, Psychological testing, Psychosis, Psychosocial, Psychotherapy, PTK2B, Radiopharmaceutical, Reading (process), Receptor (biochemistry), Recreational therapy, Rehabilitation (neuropsychology), Reliability (statistics), Reminiscence therapy, Respiratory system, Risk factor, Rivastigmine, Science News, Second language, Selenium, Semantic memory, Senile plaques, Sense, Sensory integration therapy, Sex linkage, Short story, Short-term memory, Simulated presence therapy, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Smoking, Snoezelen, Social isolation, Social issue, Social relation, Solanezumab, Solubility, SORL1, South Korea, Spirochaete, Statin, Statistical significance, Still Alice, Still Alice (novel), Stress (biology), Stroke, Sundowning, Synapse, Syphilis, Systemic inflammation, Tacrine, Tau protein, Tauopathy, TauRx Therapeutics, Temporal lobe, Thanmathra, The Economist, The Lancet, The New York Times, The Notebook, The Notebook (novel), Therapy, Thyroid function tests, Tissue (biology), Tooth pathology, Transmembrane protein, Transmission (medicine), TREM2, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United States, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Urinary incontinence, Vaccination, Validation therapy, Validity (statistics), Verubecestat, Vitamin, Vitamin B12, Vocabulary, Vomiting, Wandering (dementia), World Health Organization, Written 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A Moment to Remember

A Moment to Remember (lit. "Eraser in My Head") is a 2004 South Korean film based on the 2001 Japanese television drama Pure Soul.

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ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA7 gene.

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Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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Adverse drug reaction

An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.

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Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Aging brain

Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.

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Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.

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Alice Munro

Alice Ann Munro (née Laidlaw; born 10 July 1931) is a Canadian short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2013.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Alois Alzheimer

Aloysius Alzheimer (also known as Alois Alzheimer;;; 14 June 1864 – 19 December 1915) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin.

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Alzheimer's Association

The Alzheimer's Association was founded by Jerome H. Stone with the help of several family members in Chicago, Illinois and incorporated in April 10, 1980 as the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, Inc. and is a non-profit American volunteer health organization which focuses on care, support and research for Alzheimer's disease.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.

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Amyloid beta

Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.

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Amyloid precursor protein

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses of neurons.

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Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities

Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) are abnormal differences seen in neuroimaging of Alzheimer's Disease patients, associated with amyloid-modifying therapies, particularly human monoclonal antibodies such as aducanumab.

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Animal-assisted therapy

Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a type of therapy that involves animals as a form of treatment.

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Anomic aphasia

Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs).

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Anosognosia (from Ancient Greek ἀ- a-, "without", νόσος nosos, "disease" and γνῶσις gnōsis, "knowledge") is a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in which a person with some disability seems unaware of its existence.

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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Antiviral drug

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.

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Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.

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Apolipoprotein E

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body.

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Apomorphine (brand names Apokyn, Ixense, Spontane, Uprima) is a type of aporphine having activity as a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D2-like and, to a much lesser extent, D1-like receptors.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.

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Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Art therapy

Art therapy (also known as arts therapy) is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique.

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Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

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Attachment theory

Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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Auguste Deter

Auguste Deter (16 May 1850 – 8 April 1906) was a German woman notable for being the first person to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).

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Away from Her

Away from Her is a 2006 Canadian drama film written and directed by Sarah Polley and starring Gordon Pinsent, Julie Christie and Olympia Dukakis.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bapineuzumab (nicknamed "bapi") is a humanized monoclonal antibody that acts on the nervous system and may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and possibly glaucoma.

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Behavior modification

Behavior modification refers to behavior-change procedures that were employed during the 1970s and early 1980s.

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Beta-secretase may refer to one of two enzymes.

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Beta-secretase 1

Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1), also known as beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, membrane-associated aspartic protease 2, memapsin-2, aspartyl protease 2, and ASP2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE1 gene.

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Myc box-dependent-interacting protein 1, also known as Bridging Integrator-1 and Amphiphysin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BIN1 gene.

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Biometal (biology)

Biometals are metals normally present, in small but important and measurable amounts, in biology, biochemistry, and medicine.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Board game

A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.

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Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living.

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Caring for people with dementia

As populations age, caring for people with dementia has become more common.

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Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.

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CD2-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD2AP gene.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Challenging behaviour

Challenging behaviour also known as behaviours which challenge, is defined as "culturally abnormal behaviour(s) of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is placed in serious jeopardy, or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit or deny access to the use of ordinary community facilities".

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Child care

Child care, or otherwise known as daycare, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Chromosome 21

Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Cingulate cortex

The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75 - 80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular debris and apoptosis.

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Cocoa bean

The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.

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Cognitive development

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.

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Cognitive reserve

The term cognitive reserve describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain.

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Cognitive test

Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals.

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Cognitive training

The term cognitive training (also called brain training or neurobics) reflects a hypothesis that cognitive abilities can be maintained or improved by exercising the brain, in an analogy to the way physical fitness is improved by exercising the body.

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Cohort study

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Complement receptor 1

Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) also known as C3b/C4b receptor or CD35 (cluster of differentiation 35) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR1 gene.

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Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Coping (psychology)

Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.

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Cost-of-living index

A cost-of-living index is a theoretical price index that measures relative cost of living over time or regions.

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A cramp is a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle.

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Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.

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A crossword is a word puzzle that usually takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white-and black-shaded squares.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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Death receptor 6

Death receptor 6 (DR6), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 21 (TNFRSF21), is a cell surface receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily which activates the JNK and NF-κB pathways.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.

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A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Delusional misidentification syndrome

Delusional misidentification syndrome is an umbrella term, introduced by Christodoulou (in his book The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes, Karger, Basel, 1986) for a group of delusional disorders that occur in the context of mental and neurological illness.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Demyelinating disease

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.

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Depression of Alzheimer disease

Depression is one of the most common psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, occurring at all stages of the disease, but it often appears in a different form than other depressive disorders.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Development of the nervous system

Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.

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Developmental disability

Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diagnosis of exclusion

A diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) is a diagnosis of a medical condition reached by a process of elimination, which may be necessary if presence cannot be established with complete confidence from history, examination or testing.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Differential diagnosis

In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.

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A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Dominance (genetics)

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept, is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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Drug Effectiveness Review Project

The Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) is an Oregon-based collaboration of public and private organizations, including fifteen states, that have joined together to provide systematic evidence-based reviews of the comparative effectiveness and safety of drugs in many widely used drug classes and to apply the findings to inform public policy and related activities.

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Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.

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Early-onset Alzheimer's disease

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, also called early-onset Alzheimer's, or early-onset AD, is Alzheimer's disease diagnosed before the age of 65.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Emil Kraepelin

Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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EPH receptor A1

EPH receptor A1 (ephrin type-A receptor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA1 gene.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Episodic memory

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

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Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Extrapyramidal system

In anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a part of the motor system network causing involuntary actions.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Feeding tube

A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to people who cannot obtain nutrition by mouth, are unable to swallow safely, or need nutritional supplementation.

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Fermitin family homolog 2 (FERMT2) also known as pleckstrin homology domain-containing family C member 1 (PLEKHC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FERMT2 gene.

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Fibrils (from the Latin fibra) are structural biological materials found in nearly all living organisms.

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Fine motor skill

Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.

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Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.

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Florbetapir (18F)

Florbetapir (18F) (trade name AMYViD; also known as florbetapir-fluorine-18 or 18F-AV-45) is a PET scanning radiopharmaceutical compound containing the radionuclide fluorine-18, FDA approved in 2011 as a diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease. Florbetapir, like Pittsburgh compound B (PiB), binds to beta-amyloid, however fluorine-18 has a half-life of 109.75 minutes, in contrast to PiB's radioactive half life of 20 minutes. Wong et al. found that the longer life allowed the tracer to accumulate significantly more in the brains of people with AD, particularly in the regions known to be associated with beta-amyloid deposits. One review predicted that amyloid imaging is likely to be used in conjunction with other markers rather than as an alternative.

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Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.

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Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Forest Laboratories

Forest Laboratories was a company in the pharmaceutical industry incorporated in Delaware, with its principal office in New York City.

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Forgetting or disremembering is the apparent loss or modification of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long-term memory.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Functional symptom

A functional symptom is a medical symptom in an individual which is very broadly conceived as arising from a problem in nervous system 'functioning' and not due to a structural or pathologically defined disease cause.

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Fusion protein

Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.

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Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.

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Gamma secretase

Gamma secretase is a multi-subunit protease complex, itself an integral membrane protein, that cleaves single-pass transmembrane proteins at residues within the transmembrane domain.

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Gastric acid

Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene dosage

Gene dosage is the number of copies of a particular gene present in a genome.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage

Hateship, Friendship, Courtship, Loveship, Marriage is a book of short stories by Alice Munro, published by McClelland and Stewart in 2001.

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Head injury

A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Health professional

A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.

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Healthy diet

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

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HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene.

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Home care

Home care (also referred to as domiciliary care, social care, or in-home care) is supportive care provided in the home.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Human skin

The human skin is the outer covering of the body.

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Huperzine A

Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata and in varying quantities in other Huperzia species, including H. elmeri, H. carinat, and H. aqualupian.

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Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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Implicit memory

Implicit memory is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Innate immune system

The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.

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Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the INPP5D gene.

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Institutionalisation (or institutionalization) refers to the process of embedding some conception (for example a belief, norm, social role, particular value or mode of behavior) within an organization, social system, or society as a whole.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Iris (2001 film)

Iris is a 2001 British-American biographical drama film that tells the story of Irish-born British novelist Dame Iris Murdoch and her relationship with John Bayley.

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Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.

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Japanese cuisine

Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.

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John Bayley (writer)

John Oliver Bayley, CBE, FBA, FRSL (27 March 1925 – 12 January 2015) was a British literary critic and writer.

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Julianne Moore

Julianne Moore (born Julie Anne Smith; December 3, 1960) is an American actress, prolific in films since the early 1990s.

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Keith Laws

Keith R. Laws is a professor of neuropsychology at the School of Psychology at the University of Hertfordshire.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Latrepirdine (INN, also known as dimebolin and sold as Dimebon), is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983.

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Lewy body

Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells, contributing to Parkinson's disease (PD), the Lewy body dementias (Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies), and some other disorders.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lisa Genova

Lisa Genova (born November 22, 1970) is an American neuroscientist and author.

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Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

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Long-term care

Long-term care (LTC) is a variety of services which help meet both the medical and non-medical needs of people with a chronic illness or disability who cannot care for themselves for long periods.

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Long-term memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

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Longitudinal study

A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Malcolm Pointon

Malcolm Pointon (died February 2007) was a pianist and lecturer from Thriplow, England, and the subject of the film Malcolm and Barbara - A Love Story shown in 1999, and, more recently, of an Independent Television program entitled Malcolm and Barbara: Love’s Farewell, broadcast on Wednesday, 8 August 2007.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Marc Tessier-Lavigne

Marc Trevor Tessier-Lavigne (born December 18, 1959) is a Canadian neuroscientist who is the 11th and current president of Stanford University.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medical Hypotheses

Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical literature

Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.

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Mediterranean diet

The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.

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Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C also known as MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEF2C gene.

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Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.

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Membrane-spanning 4A

Membrane-spanning 4A is a family of genes.

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Memories of Tomorrow

is a 2006 Japanese drama film starring Ken Watanabe, Higuchi Kanako and directed by Yukihiko Tsutsumi.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Memory and aging

Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental process

Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.

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Methylene blue

Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Microscopic scale

The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Microtubule-associated protein

In cell biology, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with the microtubules of the cellular cytoskeleton.

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Mild cognitive impairment

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment, is a neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities of daily living.

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Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.

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Mini–Mental State Examination

The Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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Mood (psychology)

In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.

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Mood swing

A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.

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Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Music therapy for Alzheimer's disease

Music therapy is a type of intervention that involves music in some capacity and includes both a participant and a therapist who has completed an accredited music therapy program.

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Musical instrument

A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.

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National Center for Health Statistics

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System which provides statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the American people.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

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Neurofibrillary tangle

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease.

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Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue.

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Neurological examination

A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies.

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Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.

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Neuropsychological assessment

Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness.

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Neuropsychological test

Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway.

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Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Neurotrophic factors

Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.

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Neurulation refers to the folding process in vertebrate embryos, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube.

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Nicholas Sparks

Nicholas Charles Sparks (born December 31, 1965) is an American romance novelist and screenwriter.

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NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria

The NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria were proposed in 1984 by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (now known as the Alzheimer's Association) and are among the most used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).

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Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 3 (TXNDC3), also known as spermatid-specific thioredoxin-2 (Sptrx-2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NME8 gene (also known as the TXNDC3 gene) on chromosome 7.

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Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Nursing home care

Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Occupational and Environmental Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal which covers research in occupational and environmental medicine.

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Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.

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Orientation (mental)

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

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Paraphasia is a type of language output error commonly associated with aphasia, and characterized by the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during the effort to speak.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Patient safety

Patient safety is a discipline that emphasizes safety in health care through the prevention, reduction, reporting, and analysis of medical error that often leads to adverse effects.

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PBT2 is an experimental drug candidate.

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Penetrance in genetics is the proportion of individuals carrying a particular variant (or allele) of a gene (the genotype) that also express an associated trait (the phenotype).

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein, also known as PICALM, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PICALM gene.

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Pittsburgh compound B

Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) is a radioactive analog of thioflavin T, which can be used in positron emission tomography scans to image beta-amyloid plaques in neuronal tissue.

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Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.

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Presenilins are a family of related multi-pass transmembrane proteins which constitute the catalytic subunits of the gamma-secretase intramembrane protease complex.

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Pressure ulcer

Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, and decubitus ulcers, are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

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Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).

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Primary progressive aphasia

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a type of neurological syndrome in which language capabilities slowly and progressively become impaired.

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PRNP (PRioN Protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (for prion protein), also known as CD230 (cluster of differentiation 230).

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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.

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In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.

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A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.

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Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.

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In medicine, proteopathy (Proteo-; -pathy; proteopathies pl.; proteopathic adj.) refers to a class of diseases in which certain proteins become structurally abnormal, and thereby disrupt the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body.

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Pseudobulbar affect

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), or emotional incontinence, is a type of emotional disturbance characterized by uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychological testing

Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene.

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Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.

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Reading (process)

Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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Recreational therapy

According to the American Therapeutic Recreation Association (ATRA), recreational therapy or therapeutic recreation (TR) is a systematic process that utilizes recreation (leisure) and other interest activities as interventions to address the assessed needs of individuals with illnesses and/or disabling conditions, as a means to psychological and physical health, recovery and well-being.

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Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

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Reliability (statistics)

Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.

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Reminiscence therapy

Reminiscence therapy is defined by the American Psychological Association (APA) as "the use of life histories – written, oral, or both – to improve psychological well-being.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Rivastigmine (sold under the trade name Exelon) is a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Semantic memory

Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).

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Senile plaques

Senile plaques (also known as neuritic plaques) are extracellular deposits of amyloid beta in the grey matter of the brain.

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A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Sensory integration therapy

Sensory integration therapy is based on A. Jean Ayres' Sensory Integration Theory.

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Sex linkage

Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual.

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Short story

A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.

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Short-term memory

Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.

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Simulated presence therapy

Simulated presence therapy is an emotion-oriented non pharmacological intervention for people with dementia.

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Single-photon emission computed tomography

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Snoezelen or controlled multisensory environment (MSE) is a therapy for people with autism and other developmental disabilities, dementia or brain injury.

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Social isolation

Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.

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Social issue

A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.

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Social relation

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.

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Solanezumab (proposed INN, LY2062430) is a monoclonal antibody being investigated by Eli Lilly as a neuroprotector for patients with Alzheimer's disease.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SORL1 gene.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Statistical significance

In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.

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Still Alice

Still Alice is a 2014 American independent drama film written and directed by Richard Glatzer and Wash Westmoreland and based on Lisa Genova's 2007 bestselling novel of the same name.

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Still Alice (novel)

Still Alice is a 2007 novel by Lisa Genova, set in Boston.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sundowning, or sundown syndrome, is a neurological phenomenon associated with increased confusion and restlessness in patients with delirium or some form of dementia.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Systemic inflammation

Chronic systemic inflammation (SI) is the result of release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from immune-related cells and the chronic activation of the innate immune system.

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Tacrine is a centrally acting anticholinesterase and indirect cholinergic agonist (parasympathomimetic).

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Tau protein

Tau proteins (or τ proteins, after the Greek letter with that name) are proteins that stabilize microtubules.

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Tauopathy belongs to a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of tau protein in neurofibrillary or gliofibrillary tangles in the human brain.

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TauRx Therapeutics

TauRx Therapeutics Ltd is a life sciences/pharmaceutical company incorporated in Singapore with primary research facilities and operations in Aberdeen, Scotland.

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Thanmathra (തന്മാത്ര, Molecule) is a 2005 Indian Malayalam-language drama film written and directed by Blessy, based on Padmarajan's short story "Orma".

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Notebook

The Notebook is a 2004 American romantic drama film directed by Nick Cassavetes and based on Nicholas Sparks' 1996 novel of the same name.

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The Notebook (novel)

The Notebook is a 1996 romantic novel by American novelist Nicholas Sparks, The novel was later adapted into a popular film of the same name, in 2004.

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Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Thyroid function tests

Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Tooth pathology

Tooth pathology (or tooth diseases, tooth disorders or dental pathology), is any condition of the teeth that can be congenital or acquired.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Transmission (medicine)

In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

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Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 also known as TREM-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TREM2 gene.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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Validation therapy

Validation therapy was developed by Naomi Feil for older people with cognitive impairments and dementia.

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Validity (statistics)

Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.

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Verubecestat (MK-8931) is an experimental drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Wandering (dementia)

Wandering, in people with dementia, is a common behavior that can cause great risk for the person, and is often the major priority (and concern) for caregivers.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Written language

A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer's_disease

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